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GMAT 7 Week's Wonder
(Verbal Math AWA integrated対策)
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Let's Have a Ball & Make History!

GRE SAT 英検1級Power Voca

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.



Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.


4  We accepted the theory that as people become more independent of one another, they begin to feel so isolated and lonely that freedom becomes [ ….. ] condition that most will seek to  [ ….. ].


[A] a permanent .. postpone

[B] a common .. enter

*[C] a negative .. escape

[D] a political .. impose

[E] an irreparable .. Avoid


3  Since many casual smokers develop lung cancer and many [ ….. ] smokers do not, scientists believe that individuals differ in their[ ….. ] the cancer-causing agents known to be present in cigarette smoke.


*[A] heavy .. susceptibility to

[B] chronic .. concern about

[C] habitual .. proximity to

[D] devoted .. reliance upon

[E] regular .. exposure to


2  An institution concerned about its reputation is at the mercy of the actions of its members, because the misdeeds of individuals are often used to [ ….. ] the institutions of which they are a part.

[A] reform 

[B] coerce 

[C] honor

*[D] discredit 

[E] intimidate


1  In the British theater young people under thirty-five have not had much [ ….. ] getting recognition onstage, but offstage ? in the ranks of playwrights, directors, designers, administrators ? they have mostly been relegated to relative obscurity.


*[A] trouble 

[B] satisfaction

[C] curiosity about 

[D] success at

[E] fear of


Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


[A] impetuous 

[B] pernicious

[C] inefficacious

[D] disastrous 

*[E] specious



[A] meretricious 


[C] invulnerable 

*[D] irreproachable

[E] ambitious



[A] direct 

[B] decisive 

[C] necessary 

*[D] favorable and anticipated 

[E] confident and prepared



[A] aversion

[B] resignation

[C] suspicion

[D] inattention

*[E] contempt



*[A] deliberate

[B] determined

[C] dissident

[D] desperate

[E] divided



[A] imitative 

[B] lavish 

*[C] conciliatory

[D] attractive 

[E] modest



[A] conceited 

[B] dim 

[C] sturdy

[D] laconic 

*[E] grave



[A] timely 

[B] subordinate

[C] terminal

[D] lacking precision

*[E] exhibiting regularity



[A] study 

[B] circulate 

[C] reduce

[D] endure 

*[E] separate



[A] be apathetic 

[B] be illegitimate

[C] be irrevocable 

[D] be incongruous 

*[E] be irrelevant


Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.




[A] preventive : heal

[B] laudatory : praise

[C] admonitory : fear

*[D] peremptory : dispute

[E] imperative : comply

■ 190831sat ■



[A] gift : package

[B] necklace : garment

[C] room : house

*[D] hat : millinery

[E] faucet : sink

■ 190830fri ■



[A] possible : occur

*[B] simultaneous : coincide

[C] comprehensive : except

[D] synthetic : create

[E] constant : stabilize

■ 190829thu ■

T1S4-13  EXPAND :  VOLUME ::

[A] ascend : flight

*[B] proliferate : number

[C] bend : flexibility

[D] cook : temperature

[E] deflect : heading

■ 190828wed ■


*[A] preamble : statute

[B] sketch :drawing

[C] movement : symphony

[D] index : book

[E] blueprint : building


T1S4-11  PEST : IRKSOME ::


[A] salesclerk : courteous

*[B] expert : proficient

[C] enigma : unexpected

[D] leader : nondescript

[E] accuser : indicted

■ 190826mon ■


[A] luminary : recognize

[B] athlete : cheer

*[C] arbitrator : mediate

[D] pharmacist : prescribe

[E] dawdler : toil

■ 190825sun ■ 



[A] demand : obedient

[B] plead : obligatory

[C] flatter : commendable

*[D] drone : monotonous

[E] confirm : proven

■ 190824sat ■


[A] invisible : see

[B] erratic : control

*[C] flammable : burn

[D] noxious : escape

[E] industrial : manufacture

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.


■ 190823fri ■

T1S4-7  Not wishing to appear […..], the junior member of the research group refrained from [….. ] any criticism of the senior members’ plan for dividing up responsibility for the entire project.

[A] reluctant .. evaluating

[B] inquisitive .. offering

*[C] presumptuous .. venturing

[D] censorious .. undercutting

[E] moralistic .. observing

T1S4-6  The theory of cosmic evolution states that the universe, having begun in a state of simplicity and [….. ], has [….. ] into great variety.


[A] equilibrium .. modulated

*[B] homogeneity .. differentiated

[C] contrast .. metamorphosed

[D] proportion .. accelerated

[E] intelligibility .. developed

■ 190821wed ■

T1S4-5  The significance of the Magna Carta lies not in its […...] provisions, but in its broader impact:  it made the king subject to the law.


*[A] specific 

[B] revolutionary

[C] implicit 

[D] controversial 

[E] finite

■ 190820tue ■

T1S4-4  Poe’s [ ….. ] reviews of contemporary fiction, which often find great merit in otherwise [ ….. ] literary gems, must make us respect his critical judgment in addition to his well-known literary talent.


[A] thorough .. completed

[B] petulant .. unpopular

*[C] insightful .. unappreciated

[D] enthusiastic .. acclaimed

[E] harsh .. Undeserving

■ 190819mon ■

T1S4-3  Experienced employers recognize that business students who can [ ….. ] different points of view are ultimately more effective as managers than are the brilliant and original students who [ ….. ] dogmatically to their own formulations.


[A] discredit .. revert

*[B] assimilate .. adhere

[C] impose .. refer

[D] disregard .. incline

[E] advocate .. relate

■ 190818sun ■

T1S4-2  This poetry is not [ ….. ]; it is more likely to appeal to an international audience than is poetry with strictly regional themes.


[A] familiar 

[B] democratic 

[C] technical 

[D] complex

*[E] provincial

■ 190817sat ■

T1S4-1  The senator’s reputation though [ ….. ] by false allegations of misconduct, emerged from the ordeal [ ….. ].


*[A] shaken .. unscathed

[B] destroyed  .. intact

[C] damaged .. impaired

[D] impugned .. unclear

[E] tarnished .. sullied

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


■ 190816fri ■


[A] submerge 

[B] supersede

[C] overhaul 

*[D] undergird 

[E] intersperse

■ 190815thu ■


*[A] casual 

[B] public 

[C] satisfactory


[E] sophisticated

■ 190814wed


*[A] derision 

[B] blame

[C] avoidance 

[D] ostracism 

[E] defiance

■ 190813tue

T1-35  REPINE :

[A] intensify 

[B] excuse

*[C] express joy 

[D] feel sure

[E] rush forward

■ 190812mon ■


[A] tranquil 

[B] skeptical

[C] morose 

*[D] taciturn

[E] witty

■ 190811sun


[A] recuperate

[B] resurrect

[C] renovate

[D] gather

*[E] strengthen

■ 190810sat ■


[A] process of congealing

[B] process of distilling

*[C] process of eroding

[D] process of evolving

[E] process of condensing

■ 190809fri


[A] consternation 

*[B] purification

[C] normalization 

[D] approximation

[E] rejuvenation

■ 190808thu ■


[A] extort 

[B] underwrite 

[C] underbid

[D] stipulate 

*[E] patronize

■ 190807wed ■

T1-29  DIVULGE :

*[A] keep secret 

[B] evaluate by oneself

[C] refine 

[D] restore 

[E] copy


■ 190806tue ■


[A] personal philosophy

[B] imaginative idea 

[C] unconfirmed theory

[D] tentative opinion 

*[E] valid argument

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

■ 190805mon ■



*[A] dote : like

[B] lag : stray

[C] vex : please

[D] earn : desire

[E] recast : explain

■ 190804sun ■



[A] transparent : penetrate

[B] onerous : struggle

[C] feckless : succeed

[D] illusory : exist

*[E] pliant : yield

■ 190803sat ■



[A] generation : pyre

[B] burial : mortuary

[C] weapon : centurion

[D] massacre : invasion

*[E] prediction : augury

■ 190802fri ■



*[A] abysmal : low

[B] cogent : contentious

[C] fortuitous : accidental

[D] reckless : threatening

[E] cataclysmic : doomed

■ 190731wed ■



*[A] confident : arrogant

[B] courageous : pugnacious

[C] famous : aggressive

[D] rash : foolhardy

[E] quiet : timid

■ 190730tue ■


[A] temptation : conquer

[B] starvation : eat

*[C] wanderlust : travel

[D] humor : laugh

[E] survival : live

■ 190728sun ■



[A] participant : team

[B] commuter : train

*[C] gladiator : arena

[D] senator : caucus

[E] patient : ward

■ 190726fri ■


[A] epidemic : contagiousness

[B] vaccine : virus

[C] laxative : drug

*[D] anesthetic : numbness

[E] therapy : psychosis

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.


■ 190725thu ■

T1-7  The actual […..] of Wilson’s position was always [….. ] by his refusal to compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement.

[A] outcome .. foreshadowed

[B] logic .. enhanced

*[C] rigidity .. betrayed

[D] uncertainty .. alleviated

[E] cowardice .. highlighted

■ 190724wed ■

T1-6  Winsor McCay, the cartoonist, could draw with incredible [….. ]; his comic strip about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and sequencing.


[A] sincerity

[B] efficiency

*[C] virtuosity

[D] rapidity

[E] energy

■ 190723tue ■

T1-5  It was her view that the country’s problems had been [ ….. ] by foreign technocrats, so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive.


[A] foreseen

[B] attacked

[C] ascertained

*[D] exacerbated

[E] analyzed

■ 190722mon ■

T1-4  Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National Institutes of Health, human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which [ ….. ] treatments are unsatisfactory.


[A] similar

[B] most

[C] dangerous

[D] uncommon

*[E] alternative

■ 190721sun ■

T1-3 There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been [ ….. ] to the extent that they no longer [ ….. ] ecologists.


[A] perfected .. hinder

*[B] exhausted .. interest

[C] prolonged .. require

[D] prevented .. challenge

*[E] delayed .. benefit

■ 190719fri ■


2  Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen’s novels has oscillated between [ ….. ] and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than did most of her literary [ ….. ].


[A] dismissal .. admirers

*[B] adoration .. contemporaries

[C] disapproval .. readers

[D] indifference .. followers

[E]approbation .. precursors

1 Nonviolent demonstrations often create such tensions that a community that has constantly refused to [ ….. ] its injustices is forced to correct them: the injustices can no longer be [ ….. ].

■ 190717wed ■ 

*[A] acknowledge .. ignored

[B] decrease  .. verified

[C] tolerate .. accepted

[D] address .. eliminated

[E] explain .. discussed

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.

■ 190716tue ■


[A] abashed 

*[B] pacific 

[C] exemplary

[D] ingenuous 

[E] platonic

■ 190714sun ■


[A] deceptiveness 

[B] aloofness 

[C] unorthodoxy 

[D] uncertainty

*[E] indiscretion



[A] inoculate 

[B] vitalize 

[C] reproduce 

*[D] engage 

■ 190712fri



[A] general competence 

*[B] sporadic quirkiness

[C] brittleness 

[D] kindness

[E] fragility

■ 190711thu ■



*[A] cursory consideration 

[B] lengthy explanation 

[C] lucidity  

[D] rejection 

[E] inquisition

■ 190710wed

L8-33  TOUT :


*[A] denounce 

[B] modify 

[C] restrain

[D] adhere to 

[E] retreat from

■ 190709tue ■


[A] candid 

*[B] amenable 

[C] talkative

[D] optimistic 

[D] carefree

■ 190708mon



[A] imprint 

[B] suture

[C] convulse

*[D] ingest 

[E] enlarge

■ 190707sun ■



[A] polished 

[B] magnetic 

[C] creditable

[D] recent 

*[E] innovative

■ 190706sat ■

L8-29  STYMIE :


[A] capture 

[B] organize  

[C] reveal 

[D] gain 

*[E] promote

■ 190705fri



[A] terseness 

[B] dishonesty

*[C] imprecision 

[D] tendency to concede

[E] lack of relevance

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

■ 190703wed ■


[A] illumination : manuscript

[B] roof : foundation

[C] shading : drawing

[D] column : pillar

[E] melody : rhythm

■ 190702tue ■


*[A] flattery : praise

[B] revenge : jealousy

[C] whim : humor

[D] awe : prestige

[E] dread : courage

■ 190701mon ■



*[A] classification : object

[B] articulation : sound

[C] predilection : observation

[D] vision : detection

[E] gustation : flavor

■ 190630sun ■



[A] satire : parody

[B] libretto : opera

*[C] anecdote : novel

[D] fresco : panorama

[E] sonnet : madrigal

■ 190629sat ■

L8-11  FROND : FERN ::


[A] pod : weed

*[B] needle : pine

[C] thorn : rose

[D] bulb : lily

[E] root : potato

■ 190628fri ■



[A] transcribe : recording

[B] separate : component

[C] transmute : metal

*[D] break : code

[E] edit : text

■ 190627thu ■ 

L8-9  RAINCOAT :  RAIN  ::


[A] wages : inflation

[B] prevention : cure

[C] prediction : weather

*[D] insurance : loss

[E] work : unemployment



■ 190626wed ■

[A] dangerous : distract

[B] hidden : alarm

[C] temporary : erase

*[D] alluring : entice

[E] overwrought : exclaim

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

■ 190625tue ■

L8-7  Although normally [….. ], Alison felt so strongly about the issue that she put aside her reserve and spoke up at the committee meeting.


*[A] diffident 

[B] contentious 

[C] facetious 

[D] presumptuous

[E] intrepid

■ 190624mon ■

L8-6  Unlike the easily studied neutral and ionized [ ….. ] that compose the primary disk of the Milky Way itself, the components of the [ ….. ] surrounding our galaxy have proved more resistant to study.


[A] figments .. envelope

[B] essences .. fluctuations

[C] elements .. problems

[D] calculations .. perimeter

*[E] materials .. region

■ 190622sat ■

L8-5  Old age, even in cultures where it is [ ….. ], is often viewed with [ ….. ].


*[A] venerated .. ambivalence

[B] rare .. surprise

[C] ignored .. condescension

[D] feared .. dismay

[E] honored .. respect

■ 190621fri ■

L8-4  In sharp contrast to the intense [ ….. ] of the young republic, with its utopian faith in democracy and hopes for eternal human progress, recent developments suggest a mood of almost unrelieved [ ….. ].

*[A] idealism .. cynicism

[B] individualism .. escapism

[C] sectarianism .. recklessness

[D] assertiveness .. ambition

[E] righteousness .. egalitarianism

■ 190620thu ■

L8-3  In retrospect, Gordon’s students appreciated her [ ….. ] assignments, realizing that such assignments were specifically designed to [ ….. ] original thought rather than to review the content of her course.


[A] didactic .. ingrain

[B] intimidating .. thwart

[C] difficult .. discourage

[D] conventional .. explicate

*[E] enigmatic .. stimulate

■ 190619wed ■

2  Foucault’s rejection of the concept of continuity in Western thought, though radical, was not unique; he had [ ….. ] in the United States who, without knowledge of his work, developed parallel ideas.


[A] critics 

*[B] counterparts 

[C] disciple

[D] readers 

[E] publishers

■ 190618tue ■

L8-1  A good doctor knows that knowledge about medicine will continue to [ …..] and that, therefore, formal professional training can never be an  [ …..]  guide to good practice.


[A] vary .. adaptable

*[B] change .. absolute

[C] ossify .. inflexible

[D] pertain .. invaluable

[E] intensify .. obsolescent

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


■ 190617mon ■

L7-38 PROMPT :

[A] betray 

*[B] check 

[C] sway

[D] complicate 

[E] defer

■ 190616sun ■

37 TOUT :

[A] placate 

[B] misrepresent 

[C] withhold consent

*[D] cast aspersions on 

[E] deny the relevance of

■ 190614fri ■



*[A] overwrought

[B] long-winded

[C] pompous

[D] energetic

[E] adept

■ 190613thu ■



[A] deductive 

[B] meaningful

*[C] steadfast 

[D] limited 

[E] straightforward



[A] pomposity 

[B] sterility 

[C] awkwardness 

[D] careful organization 

*[E] calm restraint

■ 190611tue

L7-32  LUCID :


*[A] vague 

[B] cynical

[C] tedious 

[D] unreliable

[E] improper

■ 190610mon ■



[A] obverse 

[B] extensive

[C] serial 

*[D] pacific 

[E] deflated

■ 190609sun ■

L7-30 DAMPED :


[A] phonetic 

[B] flexible 

*[C] amplified

[D] concentrated 

[E] variable

■ 190608sat

L7-29  TRUCE :


*[A] resumed fighting 

[B] false pretenses 

[C] genuine grievances

[D] nonmilitary service 

[E] tactical error

■ 190607fri



*[A] bounded space

[B] physical repulsion

[C] inadequate measurement

[D] weak charge

[E] small miscalculation


Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

■ 190605wed ■


[A] sideshow : carnival

[B] forgery : imitation

[C] burlesque : comedy

[D] ploy : tactic

*[E] nostrum : remedy

■ 190603mon


[A] caution : fear

[B] compel : force

*[C] grill : question

[D] replicate : copy

[E] waver : adhere

■ 190531fri ■

14  RESCIND : LAW ::


[A] postpone : performance

*[B] withdraw : candidacy

[C] default : debt

[D] demote : hierarchy

[E] retire : position

 190527mon ■



[A] delineate : disclaim

[B] recede : abandon

[C] recite : harangue

[D] muse: reflect

*[E] murmur : resound


L7-12  EGG : CHICKEN ::


[A] pearl : oyster

*[B] roe : salmon

[C] shell : clam

[D] skin : shark

[E] tusk : walrus

■ 190522wed ■



[A] pedestal : statue

[B] prologue : play

[C] melody : song

[D] salutation : letter

*[E] motto : shield


■ 190521tue ■



[A] brush : painter

[B] typewriter : author

[C] trowel : bricklayer

[D] wagon : farmer

*[E] scissors : tailor

■ 190519sun



*[A] cultivate : crop

[B] quench : fire

[C] marvel : infant

[D] secure : possession

[E] delimit : obligation

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

■ 190517fri

L7-7  Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world [….. ] of [….. ] .


[A] bereft .. theatricality

[B] composed .. adversity

[C] full .. circumstantiality

[D] deprived .. polarity

*[E] devoid .. neutrality

■ 190516thu

L7-6  Rhetoric often seems to [ ….. ] over reason in a heated debate, with both sides [ ….. ] in hyperbole.


[A] cloud .. subsiding

[B] prevail .. yielding

*[C] triumph .. engaging

[D] reverberate .. clamoring

[E] trample .. tangling

■ 1905012sun

L7-4  Observable as a tendency of our culture is a [ ….. ] of [ ….. ] psychoanalysis: we no longer feel that it can solve our emotional problems.

[A] divergence .. certainty about

[B] confrontation .. enigmas in

*[C] withdrawal .. belief in

[D] defense .. weaknesses in

[E] failure .. rigor in

■ 190509thu ■

L7-3  Ecology, like economics, concerns itself with the movement of valuable [ ….. ] through a complex network of producers and consumers.


*[A] commodities

[B] dividends

[C] communications

[D] nutrients

[E] artifacts

■ 190508wed ■

L7-2  There is some [ ….. ] the fact that the author of a book as sensitive and informed as Indian Artisans did not develop her interest in Native American art until adulthood, for she grew up in a region rich in American Indian culture.


*[A] irony in

[B] satisfaction in

[C] doubt about

[D] concern about

[E] presumptuousness in

■ 190507tue

1  The natural balance between prey and predator has been increasingly [ ….. ], most frequently by human intervention.


[A] celebrated

[B] predicted

[C] observed

*[D] disturbed

[E] questioned

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


■ 190506mon

5-38 IMPUGN :

[A] revoke 

[B] discharge 

*[C] champion

[D] console 

[E] restore

■ 190505sun

5-37 GLIB :

[A] illiterate 

[B] inexplicit 

[C] verbose

[D] perfunctory 

*[E] labored

■ 190504sat ■


*[A] harden by drying

[B] influence by lying

[C] cover by painting

[D] cure by medicating

[E] assess by observing

■ 190503fri ■


[A] useful

[B] admissible

[C] ornate

[D] meticulous

*[E] original

■ 190502thu ■

5-34  CODA :

*[A] prelude 

[B] crescendo

[C] solo 

[D] refrain 

[E] improvisation

■ 190501wed ■

5-33  REACTANT :

[A] by-product 

[B] low-grade ore

*[C] inert material 

[D] inorganic substance

[E] nonradioactive element

■ 190430tue ■


[A] plausibility 

[B] audacity

[C] reason 

[D] argument

*[E] conviction

■ 190429mon ■

5-31 persistence :

[A] inequality

*[B] inconstancy

[C] irrelevance

[D] incompetence

[E] intemperance

■ 190426fri ■


[A] criticize 

*[B] simplify 

[C] imbue

[D] expel 

[E] confuse

■ 190425thu ■


[A] punishment 

[B] verdict 

[C] corrosion

*[D] guilt 

[E] conflict

■ 190423tue ■

5-28 PRESS :

[A] excel 

[B] desire 

[C] act 

[D] require 

*[E] withdraw

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

■ 190422mon


[A] gas : molecules

[B] volume : liquid

*[C] crystal : atoms

[D] interaction : reagents

[E] stratum : layer

■190418thu ■


*[A] argument : logic

[B] baseball : athletics

[C] word : language

[D] student : pedagogy

[E] album : philately

■190416tue ■



[A] crave : accept

[B] goad : direct

[C] instruct : teach

[D] tamper : adjust

*[E]  conspire : plan

■190415mon ■



[A] assessment : taxes

[B] computer: programs

[C] insurance : risks

[D] resume : careers

*[E] dossier : reports

■190414sun ■



[A] condense : illusive

[B] alter : remarkable

[C] train : clumsy

*[D] adulterate : pure

[E] refine : unique

■190413sat ■



[A] book : title

*[B] officer : rank

[C] house : architecture

[D] doctor : profession

[E] tree : wood

■190412fri ■

L5-9  STANZA : POEM ::


[A] pirouette : ballet

[B] rhyme : verse

[C] duet : chorus

*[D] act : opera

[E] mimicry : pantomime」

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

■190412fri ■

L5-9  STANZA : POEM ::


[A] pirouette : ballet

[B] rhyme : verse

[C] duet : chorus

*[D] act : opera

[E] mimicry : pantomime



L5-1  In the current research program, new varieties of apple trees are evaluated under different agricultural [ ….. ] for tree size, bloom density, fruit size, [ ….. ] to various soils, and resistance to pests and disease.


[A] circumstances .. proximity

[B] regulations  .. conformity

*[C] conditions .. adaptability

[D] auspices .. susceptibility

[E] configurations .. propensity


  1. 190404thu
  1. L5-2  At first, I found her gravity rather intimidating; but, as I saw more of her, I found that [ ….. ] was very near the surface.


[A] seriousness

[B] confidence

*[C] laughter

[D] poise

[E] determination



L5-3  Even though in today’s Soviet Union the [ ….. ] the Muslim clergy have been accorded power and privileges, the Muslim laity and the rank-and-file clergy still have little [ ….. ] to practice their religion.


[A] practitioners among .. opportunity

[B] dissidents within  .. obligation

[C] adversaries of  .. inclination

*[D] leaders of  .. latitude

[E] traditionalists among  .. Incentive



L5-4  The proponents of recombinant DNA research have decided to [ ….. ] federal regulation of their work; they hope that by making this compromise they can forestall proposed state and local controls that might be even stiffer.


[A] protest 

[B] institute 

[C] deny

*[D] encourage

 [E] disregard


■ 190408mon

L5-5  It is to the novelist’s credit that all of the episodes in her novel are presented realistically, without any [ ….. ] or playful supernatural tricks.


[A] elucidation

[B] discrimination

[C] artlessness

[D] authenticity

*[E] whimsy



L5-6 Our new tools of systems analysis, powerful though they may be, lead to   [….. ] theories, especially, and predictably, in economics and political science, where productive approaches have long been highly [….. ].


[A] pragmatic .. speculative

[B] inelegant .. efficacious

[C] explanatory .. intuitional

[D] wrongheaded .. convergent

*[E] simplistic .. Elusive


■ 190410wed ■

L5-7  Nineteenth-century scholars, by examining earlier geometric Greek art, found that classical Greek art was not a magical [….. ] or a brilliant [….. ] blending Egyptian and Assyrian art, but was independently evolved by Greeks in Greece.


[A] stratagem .. appropriation

[B] exemplar .. synthesis

[C] conversion .. annexation

[D] paradigm .. construct

*[E] apparition .. amalgam

8B 9D 10B 11D 12E

13E 14D 15A 16C



Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.


  1. ■ 190411thu



[A] resentful : gratitude

*[B] perplexed : clarification

[C] inured : imagination

[D] vociferous : suppression

[E] abstemious : indulgence

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


■ 190401aprilfools

L5-37  ENDEMIC :

*[A] exotic

[B] shallow

[C] episodic

[D] manifest

[E] treatable

■ 190331sun ■


[A] probity

[B] sophistry

[C] acumen

[D] polish

*[E] vigor

■ 190329fri ■

L5-34  DIN :

*[A] silence

[B] slowness

[C] sharpness

[D] essence

[E] repose

■ 190328thu ■

L5-33  INERTIA :

[A] short duration

[B] massless particle

[C] resistant medium

[D] ability to maintain pressure

*[E] tendency to change motion

■ 190327wed ■


[A] recurrent

[B] rare

[C] comprehensible

*[D] scanty

[E] flawed

■ 190326tue ■


[A] off-key

[B] out-of-order

[C] without pity

*[D] out-of-phase

[E] without difficulty

■ 190325mon ■


[A] loss

[B] liability

[C] decrease

[D] shortfall

*[E] discount

■ 190324sun ■


[A] distribute

[B] analyze

*[C] systematize

[D] blend

[E] prepare

■ 190323sat ■

L5-28 LAG :

[A] look around

[B] dodge easily

[C] seem hard

*[D] forge ahead

[E] change radically

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.


■ 190322fri ■



[A] compile : available

[B] restore : new

[C] contribute : charitable

[D] venerate : reverent

*[E] qualify : general

■ 190321thu ■

L5-15  MUFFLE : SOUND ::


*[A] assuage : grief

[B] maul : object

[C] extract : flavor

[D] endure : agony

[E] conceal :secret

■ 190320wed ■



[A] buoy : direction

*[B] purchase : slippage

[C] lathe: metal

[D] pulley : leverage

[E] hoist : elevator



[A] turret : chimney

*[B] come : roof

[C] column : entrance

[D] foyer: ballroom

[E] foundation : building


11  LOAP: RUN::


[A] uncover: lose

[B] view: see

[C] sigh: moan

[D] chew: drink

*[E] drawl: speak

■ 190317sun ■


[A] police office : traffic

[B] teacher : pupil

[C] mayor : city

*[D] soldier : country

[E] secretary : office

■ 190316sat ■



[A] speech : shout

[B] wind : temperature

*[C] storm : hurricane

[D] whale : minnow

[E] plant : flower

■ 190315fri ■

L5-8   APPLE : SKIN ::

[A] potato : tuber

*[B] melon : rind

[C] tomato : fruit

[D] maize : cob

[E] rhubarb : leafstalk

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

■ 190314thu ■

L5-7 Parts of seventeenth-century Chinese pleasure gardens were not necessarily intended to look [….. ];  melancholy resulting from a sense of the [….. ] of natural beauty and human glory


[A] beautiful .. immutability

*[B] cheerful .. transitoriness

[C] colorful .. abstractness

[D] luxuriant .. simplicity

[E] conventional .. wildness

■ 190313wed ■

L5-6 Comparatively few rock musicians are willing to laugh at themselves, although a hit of [….. ] can boost sales of video clips very nicely.


*[A] self-deprecation

[B] congeniality

[C] cynicism

[D] embarrassment

[E] self-doubt

■ 190312tue

5 Although [ .. ] almost self-effacing in his private life, he displays in his plays and essays a strong [ ….. ] publicity and controversy.


[A] conventional .. Interest in

[B] monotonous  .. Reliance on

[C] shy .. Aversion toward

*[D] retiring .. Penchant for

[E] evasive .. Impatience with

■ 181231mon ■

L5-4  Yellow fever, the disease that killed 4,000 Philadelphians in 1793, and so [ ….. ] Memphis, Tennessee, that the city lost its charter, has reappeared after nearly two decades in [ ….. ] the Western Hemisphere.


[A] terrorized .. contention

[B] ravaged .. secret

[C] disabled .. quarantine

[D] corrupted .. quiescence

*[E] decimated .. abeyance

■ 181203mon ■

L5-3 The paradoxical aspect of the myths about Demeter, when we consider the predominant image of her as a tranquil and serene goddess, is her [ ….. ] search for her daughter.


[A] extended

[B] agitated

[C] comprehensive

[D] motiveless


■ 181126mon ■

2  Sponsors of the bill were [ ….. ] because there was no opposition to it within the legislature until after the measure had been signed into law.


[A] unreliable

[B] well-intentioned

[C] persistent

*[D] relieved

[E] detained


■ 181121wed ■

L5-1   Clearly refuting sceptics, researchers have [ ….. ] not only that gravitational radiation exists but that it also does exactly what theory  [ ….. ] it should do.


[A] doubted .. warranted

[B] estimated  .. accepted

*[C] demonstrated .. predicted

[D] assumed .. deduced

[E] supposed .. asserted

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


■ 181117sat

L4-38 belie:

[A] flaunt

[B] distend

[C] attune

[D] obviate

*[E] aver

■ 181114wed ■

L4-36  ubiquitous:

[A] uniform

[B] unanimous

*[C] unique

[D] anachronistic

[E] mediocre

 ■ 181113tue ■

35  banality:

[A] accurate portrayal

[B] impromptu statement

*[C] original expression

[D] succinct interpretation

[E] elaborate critique

 ■ 181112mon

L4-34 divest:

[A] multiply

[B] initiate

[C] triumph

[D] persist

*[E] endow


L4-33  recant:

[A] propose

[B] respond

[C] instruct

*[D] affirm

[E] disclose


■ 181108thu ■

L4-32  impudent:

[A] compelling

[B] mature

*[C] respectful

[D] thorough

[E] deliberate

 ■ 181106tue ■

L4-31  substantiation:

*[A] disproof

[B] dissent

[C] delusion

[D] debate

[E] denial

■ 181105mon ■

L4-30  aggregate:

[A] altered plans

[B] intended actions

[C] unexplained occurrences

*[D] isolated units

[E] unfounded conclusions

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


■ 181104sun ■

L4-29  quandary:

[A] state of suppressed enmity

*[B] state of complete certainty

[C] state of mild hysteria

[D] state of unprovoked anger

[E] state of feeble opposition

■ 181103sat ■

L4-28  brilliance:

*[A] dullness

[B] emptiness

[C] awkwardness

[D]  state of immobility

[E]  excess of information

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.




L4-16 droll: laugh

*[A] grisly: flinch

[B] bland: tire

[C] shrill: shriek

[D] coy: falter

[E] wily: smirk

■ 181101thu

L4-15 doggerel: verse

*[A] burlesque: play

[B] sketch: drawing

[C] operetta: symphony

[D] fable: narration

[E] limerick: sonnet

■ 181031wed ■

14 striated: groove

[A] adorned: detail

[B] woven: texture

[C] engraved: curve

[D] constructed: design

*[E] braided: strand


L4-13 invincible: subdued

[A] inconsistent: expressed

*[B] impervious: damaged

[C] imprudent: enacted

[D] bolted: separated

[E] expensive: bought


L4-11 pitch: sound

*[A] color: light

[B] mask: weight

[C] force: pressure

[D] energy : heat

[E] velocity: time


L4-10 varnish: wood

[A] etch: glass

[B] tarnish: silver

*[C] wax: linoleum

[D] burnish: metal

[E] bleach: fabric


L4-9 syllabus: course

[A] rules: jury

[B] map: destination

[C] recipe: ingredients

[D] appetizer: meal

*[E] agenda: meeting

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.



L4-8 babble : talk

[A] chisel: sculpt

[B] harmonize: sing

*[C] scribble: write

[D] hint: imply

[E] quibble: elude

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.


L4-7 That his intransience in making decisions [ ….. ]  no open disagreement from any quarter was well known; thus clever subordinates learned the art of [ ….. ]  their opinions in casual remarks.

[A] elicited.. quashing

[B] engendered.. recasting

*[C] brooked.. intimating

[D] embodied.. instigating

[E] forbore.. emending


L4-6  It is strange how words shape our thoughts and trap us at the bottom of deeply [ ….. ]  canyons of thinking, their imprisoning sides carved out by the [ ….. ] of past usage.


[A] cleaved.. eruptions

[B] rooted.. flood

*[C] incised.. river

[D] ridged.. ocean

[E] notched.. mountains


5  Ironically, the party leaders encountered no greater [ ….. ]  their efforts to build a progressive part than the [ ….. ]  of the progressive already elected to the legislature.


[A] support for.. advocacy

[B] threat to.. promise

[C] benefit from.. success

*[D] obstacle to.. resistance

[E] praise for.. reputation


L4-4  Since she believed him to be both candid and trustworthy, she refused to consider the possibility that his statement had been  [ ….. ]


[A] irrelevant

[B] facetious

[C] mistaken

[D] critical

*[E] insincere


L4-3  Laws do not ensure social order since laws can always be  [ ….. ] , which makes them  [ ….. ]  unless the authorities have the will and the power to detect and punish wrongdoing.


[A] contested .. provisional

[B] circumvented .. antiquated

[C] repealed .. vulnerable

*[D] violated .. ineffective

[E] modified .. unstable


L4-2  Given the evidence of Egyptian and Babylonian  [ ….. ] later Greek civilization, it would be incorrect to view the work of Greek scientists as an entirely independent creation.


[A] disdain for

[B] imitation of

[C] ambivalence about

[D] deference to

*[E] influence on



L4-1  Since it is now  [ ….. ] to build the complex central processing unit of a computer on a single silicon chip using photolithography and chemical etching, it seems plausible that other miniature structures might be fabricated in  [ ….. ]  ways.


[A] unprecedented .. undiscovered

[B] difficult .. related

[C] permitted .. unique

[D] mandatory .. congruent

*[E] routine .. similar

-Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.



L3-38 limpid:

[A] rampant

[B] vapid

*[C] turbid

[D] rigid

[E] resilient


L3-37 effrontery:

*[A] decorum

[B] candor

[C] resolution

[D] perplexity

[E] meditation


L3-36  gist:

*[A] tangential point

[B] tentative explanation

[C] faulty assumption

[D] flawed argument

[E] meaningless distinction


L3-35  grouse:

*[A] rejoice

[B] rekindle

[C] restore

[D] reject

[E] reflect


34 anomalous:

[A] porous

[B] viscous

[C] essential

*[D] normal

[E] elemental


L3-33  levy:

[A] reconsider

[B] relinquish

[C] repatriate

[D] revitalize

*[E] rescind


L3-32  nexus:

*[A] disconnected components

[B] tangled threads

[C] lost direction

[D] unseen obstacle

[E] damaged parts


L3-31  flippant:

[A] evenly distributed

[B] well coordinated

[C] inflexible

[D] sane

*[E] earnest


L3-30  diverge:

[A] relay

[B] bypass

[C] enclose

[D] work quickly

*[E] come together


L3-29  indeterminate:

[A] qualified

*[B] definite

[C] stubborn

[D] effective

[E] committed


L3-28  commotion:

[A] desirability

[B] likability

[C] propensity

[D] changeability

*[E] tranquility

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.


L3-16 subsidy: support

[A] assistance: endowment

[B] funds: fellowship

[C] credit: payment

*[D] debt: obligation

[E] loan: note


L3-15 torque: rotation

[A] centrifuge: axis

[B] osmosis: membrane

*[C] tension: elongation

[D] elasticity: variation

[E] gas: propulsion


L3-14 redolent: smell

[A] curious: knowledge

[B] lucid: sight

[C] torpid: motion

[D] ephemeral: touch

*[E] piquant: taste


L3-13 proctor: supervise

[A] prophet: rule

[B] profiteer: consume

[C] profligate: demand

*[D] prodigal: squander

[E] prodigy: wonder


L3-12 countenance: toleration

[A] defer: ignorance

[B] renounce: mistrust

[C] encroach: jealousy

*[D] demur: objection

[E] reject: disappointment


L3-11 slither: snake

[A] perch: eagle

[B] bask: lozard

*[C] waddle: duck

[D] circle: hawk

[E] croak: frog


10 maverick: conformity

[A] renegade: ambition

*[B] extrovert: reserve

[C] reprobate: humility

[D] zealot: loyalty

[E] strategist: decisiveness



L3-9 glaring: bright

[A] iridescent: colorful

[B] perceptible: visible

[C] discordant: harmonious

[D] peppery: salty

*[E] deafening: loud


L3-8 choir : singer

[A] election: voter

[B] anthology: poet

*[C] cast: actor

[D] orchestra: composer

[E] convention: performance

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.



L3-7  When theories formerly considered to be [ ….. ]  in their scientific objectivity are found instead to reflect a consistent observational and evaluative bias, then the presumed neutrality of science gives way to the recognition that categories of knowledge are human [ ….. ] .


*[A] disinterested .. constructions

[B] callous .. errors

[C] verifiable .. prejudices

[D] convincing .. imperatives

[E] unassailable .. Fantasies




L3-6  In failing to see that the justice’s pronouncement merely [ ….. ]  previous decisions rather than actually establishing a precedent, the novice law clerk [ ….. ]  the scope of the justice’s judgement.


[A] synthesized .. limited

[B] overturned .. misunderstood

[C] endorsed .. nullified

*[D] qualified .. overemphasized

[E] recapitulated .. Defined


L3-5  Number theory is rich in problems of an especially [ ….. ] sort: they are tantalizingly simple to state but [ ….. ]  difficult to solve.

[A] cryptic .. deceptively

[B] spurious .. equally

[C] abstruse .. ostensibly

[D] elegant .. rarely

*[E] vexing .. notoriously


L3-4  The primary criterion for [ ….. ]  a school is its recent performance; critics are [ ….. ]  to extend credit for earlier victories.


[A] evaluating.. prone

[B] investigating.. hesitant

*[C] judging.. reluctant

[D] improving.. eager

[E] administering.. persuaded

L3-3  It is his dubious distinction to have proved what nobody woud think of denying, that Romero at the age of sixty-four writes with all the characteristics of [ ….. ] .


*[A] maturity

[B] fiction

[C] inventiveness

[D] art

[E] brilliance


L3-2  Few of us take the pains to study our cherished convictions; indeed, we almost have a natural [ ….. ] doing so.


[A] aptitude for

*[B] repugnance to

[C] interest in

[D] ignorance of

[E] reaction after


L3-1 Hydrogen is the   [ ….. ] element of the universe in that it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.

[A] steadfast

[B] expendable

[C] lightest

[D] final

*[E] fundamental

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


L2-38  disingenuousness :

[A] coherent thought

[B] polite conversation

[C] acquisitiveness

*[D] guilelessness

[E] contentiousness


L2-37  seminal :

[A] withholding peripheral information

[B] promoting spirited exchange

[C] suggesting contradictory hypotheses

[D] displaying cultural biases

*[E] hampering further development


L2-36  timorous :

[A] consummate

[B] faithful

*[C] intrepid

[D] antagonistic

[E] impulsive


L2-35  fatuousness :

*[A] sensibleness

[B] courage

[C] obedience

[D] aloofness

[E] forcefulness


L2-34  approbation :

[A] disinclination

[B] stagnation

*[C] condemnation

[D] false allegation

[E] immediate repulsion


L2-33  nadir :

[A] immobile object

[B] uniform measurement

[C] extreme distance

*[D] topmost point

[E] regular phenomenon


L2-32  refute :

[A] reveal

[B] associate

[C] recognize

[D] understand

*[E] prove


L2-30  profuse :

[A] sequential

[B] shoddy

*[C] scant

[D] surly

[E] supreme



L2-29  renovate :

[A] design to specifications

[B] keep hidden

*[C] cause to decay

[D] duplicate

[E] complicate



L2-28  stabilize :

[A] penetrate

[B] minimize

*[C] fluctuate

[D] analyze

[E] isolate

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.



L2-16  skirmish : insignificance ::

[A] revolution : democracy

*[B] duel : formality

[C] feud : impartiality

[D] bout : sparring

[E] crusade : remoteness


L2-15  filigree : wire ::

[A] embroidery : knot

[B] bead : string

*[C] lace : thread

[D] fringe : yarn

[E] rope : strand


L2-14  complain : carp ::

[A] supply : donate

[B] argue : debate

[C] grumble : accuse

*[D] drink : guzzle

[E] pacify : intervene


L2-13  accelerate : speed ::

[A] assess : value

[B] elaborate : quality

[C] disperse : strength

*[D] prolong : duration

[E] enumerate : quantity


L2-12  redoubtable : awe ::

[A] tart : pungency

[B] tacit : solitude

*[C] despicable : contempt

[D] engrossing : obliviousness

[E] venerable : renown


L2-11  castigation : disapproval ::

[A] grief : indignation

[B] hostility : intention

[C] hope : insight

[D] innocence : patience

*[E] blasphemy : irreverence


L2-10  school : fish ::

[A] posse : crowd

[B] arrow : feathers

[C] union : labor

*[D] flock : birds

[E] stock : cattle


L2-9  tile : mosaic ::

[A] wood : totem

[B] stitch : sampler

[C] ink : scroll

[D] pedestal : column

[E] tapestry : rug


Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.


L2-8 water : swim ::

[A] grass : grow

[B] knot : tie

[C] plan : implement

[D] flood : damage

[E] snow : ski

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.


L2-7  Rather than enhancing a country's security, the successful development of nuclear weapons could serve at first to in crease that country's   [ ….. ] .


[A] boldness

[B] influence

[C] responsibility

[D] moderation

[E] vulnerability


L2-6  Because outlaws were denied   [ ….. ]  under medeval law, anyone could raise a hand against them with legal   [ ….. ] .


[A] propriety .. authority

[B] protection .. impunity

[C] collusion .. consent

[D] rights .. collaboration

[E] provisions .. validity


L2-5  Queen Elizabeth I has quite correctly been called a   [ ….. ]  of the arts, because many young artists received her patronage.


[A] connoisseur

[B] critic

*[C] friend

[D] scourge

[E] judge


L2-4  In the seventeenth century, discreet flouting of a genetically accepted system of values was regarded as   [ ….. ] , even as a sign of madness.


[A] adventurous

[B] frivolous

[C] willful

[D] impermissible

*[E] irrational


L2-3  Despite the   [ ….. ]  of many of their colleagues, some scholars have begun to emphasize "pop culture" as a key for   [ ….. ]  the myths, hopes, and fears of contemporary society.


[A] antipathy .. entangling

[B] discernment .. evaluating

[C] pedantry .. reinstating

[D] skepticism .. deciphering

[E] enthusiasm .. symbolizing


L2-2  The results of the experiments performed by Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown were  [ ….. ] not only because these results challenged old assumptions but also because they called the  [ ….. ]  methodology into question.


*[A] provocative .. prevailing

[B] predictable .. contemporary

[C] inconclusive .. traditional

[D] intriguing .. projected

[E] specious .. Original


L2-1  Although the minuet appeared simple, its  [ ….. ] steps had to be studied very carefully before they could be gracefully  [ ….. ] in public.


[A] progressive .. revealed

*[B] intricate .. executed

[C] rudimentary .. allowed

[D] minute .. discussed

[E] entertaining .. stylized

Directions:  Choose the word or phrase most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to the original word.


 L1-38 odium

[A] ease

[B] fragrance

[C] resignation

[D] eccentricity

*[E] infatuation


L1-37 philistine

[A] perfectionist

*[B] aesthete

[C] iconoclast

[D] critic

[E] cynic


L1-36 turpitude

*[A] saintly behavior

[B] clever conversion

[C] lively imagination

[D] agitation

[E] lucidity


L1-35 viscid

[A] bent

[B] prone

[C] cool

*[D] slick

[E] slight


L1-34 lambaste

[A] permit

[B] prefer

*[C] extol

[D] smooth completely

[E] support openly


L1-33 pristine

[A] ruthless

[B] seductive

[C] coarse

[D] commonplace

*[E] contaminated


L1-32 cower

[A] swiftly disappear

*[B] brazenly confront

[C] assuage

[D] coast

[E] invert


L1-31 authentic

[A] ordinary

[B] criminal

[C] unattractive

[D] inexpensive

*[E] bogus


L1-30 fumble

[A] organize neatly

[B] say clearly

[C] prepare carefully

*[D] handle adroitly

[E] replace immediately


L1-29 precarious

*[A] safe

[B] covert

[C] rescued

[D] revived

[E] pledged



L1-28 fluctuate :

[A] work for

[B] flow over

[C] follow from

*[D] remain steady

[E] cling together

Directions:  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.



L1-16 offence : peccadillo

[A] envy : resentment

[B] quarrel : tiff

[C] affinity : wish

[D] depression : wish

[E] homesickness : nostalgia


L1-15 epithet : disparage

[A] abbreviation : proliferate

[B] hieroglyphic : mythologize

[C] diminutive : respect

[D] code : simplify

*[E] alias : mislead


L-14 usury : interest

[A] fraud : property

*[B] gouging : price

[C] monopoly : production

[D] foreclosure : mortgage

[E] embezzlement : savings


L-13 chary : caution

[A] circumspect : recklessness

*[B] imperturbable : composure

[C] meticulous : resourcefulness

[D] exigent : stability

[E] fortuitous : pluck


L-12 cogent : convince

[A] irrational : disturb

[B] repugnant : repel

[C] dangerous : avoid

[D] eloquent : reine

[E] generous : appreciate


L-1-11 volcano : lava

*[A] geyser : water

[B] fault : tremor

[C] glacier : fissure

[D] avalanche : snow

[E] cavern : limestone


L1-10 screen : movie

[A] shelf : book

[B] frame : portrait

[C] shadow : object

*[D] stage : play

[E] score : performance


L1-9 topsoil : erode

[A] leather : tan

[B] veneer : varnish

[C] roast : baste

[D] grain : mash

*[E] paint : peel


L1-8 pilot : ship

[A] surveyor : landscape

*[B] conductor : orchestra

[C] guard : stockade

[D] actor : scene

[E] philosopher : inspiration

Directions:  Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.


L1-7 While it is assumed that the mechanization of work has a

[ revolutionary ] effect on the lives of workers, there is evidence to suggest that, on the contrary, mechanization has served to [ reinforce ] some of the traditional roles of women.


[A] salutary .. improve

[B] dramatic .. undermine

[C] benign .. revise

[D] debilitating .. weaken

[E] revolutionary .. reinforce



L1-6 Although many findings of the Soviet an United States probes of Venus were complementary, the two sets of atmospheric results clearly could not be

  [ reconciled ] without a major change of data or  [ interpretation ].


[A] obtained .. experimentation

[B] completed .. position

[C] matched .. implementation

[D] reconciled .. interpretation

[E] produced .. Falsification

180614thu L1-5
The modern age is a permissive one in which things can be said explicitly, but the old tradition of [ euphemism ] dies hard.


[A] garrulousness

[B] exaggeration

[C] excoriation

[D] bombast

[E] euphemism

180613wed L1-4

Even though they tended to be [ hostile ] to strangers, fifteenth-century Europeans did not automatically associate [ foreignness ] and danger.

[A] trusting of .. diversity

[B] haughty with .. nonconformity

[C] interested in .. enmity

[D] antagonistic .. rudeness

[E] hostile to .. foreignness


180612tue L1-3 How could words, confined as they individually are to certain [ precise ] meaning specified in a dictionary, eventually come, when combined in groups, to create obscurity and actually to prevent thought from being [ communicable ]?

[A] indefinite .. articulated

[B] conventional .. conceivable

[C] unlikely .. classified

[D] archaic .. expressed

[E] precise .. communicable

180611mon L1-2

Consider the universal cannibalism of the sea, all of whose creatures [ prey on ] one another.

[A] hide from

[B] ferret out

[C] prey on

[D] glide among

[E] compete against

180610sun L1-1

Because it is [difficult ] to [measure] all the business costs related to employee discontent, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of these costs is not easily calculated.


[A] difficult .. measure

[B] impossible .. justify

[C] improper .. overlook

[D] useless .. discover

[E] necessary .. pinpoint

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