青山T/Gセミナー

GMAT sentence correction





GMAT sc

 

GMAT (graduate Management Admission Test) sc (sentence correction)は、より良い英文 (Standard American English)を、体感で会得するすることができる格好の練習教材。GMAT受験生はもちろん、英文に興味のあるどなたでも挑戦歓迎。高校大学受験レベルの基礎英語力があれば十分。難しいと思う方にとっては、限りなく難しく、大丈夫こなせるという鯔背な信念を持つ方にとっては、奥深く興味尽きることのない教材、それがGMAT scです。
  回答( A, B, C, D, E)、案、ご相談・質問は、ここに!
 
本気にやりたい方は→
GMAT 7 Week's Wonder



GMAT scのルール

英文の一部ないし全体に下線があります。文法、用法、様式、簡潔性、明確性、論理整合性等の観点より、下線(括弧)に入る最適のものを、AEから選んでください。なお、Aは下線と同様です。参考:The Elements of Style (解法に必要なほぼすべての鍵は、この1918年発行の小冊子にあります。大切なのは、その適用力です)

......................正解と解法のテクニック

Directions:  Choose the best way to express the part in the bracket. (A is the same as the one in the bracket)

Gsc4-7 200531sun

Government agencies have agreed to authorize insurance payments for the use of CAT scanners, recognizing that these machines [are able to make hospital stays shorter and to reduce] the frequency of exploratory surgery.

 

(A) are able to make hospital stays shorter and to reduce

(B) may make hospital stays shorter and make a reduction in

(C) should shorten hospital stays and also make a reduction in

(D) can shorten hospital stays and reduce

(E) will shorten hospital stays, reducing

 

解法のテクニック

Concise:

be able to vs can

make O short vs shorten

make a reduction vs reduce

Gsc4-6 200527wed

Few baskets made by Southern California Indians would have survived to the present [had it not been for] enthusiastic collectors at the turn of the century.

 

(A) had it not been for

 

(B) unless there had been

 

(C) without the fact that there were

 

(D) were it not due to

 

(E) except that there were

 

解法のテクニック

If構文:仮定法過去完了If it had not been for= Had it not been for

 

仮定法過去

If I were a bird, I would fly to you.

 

仮定法現在(条件文)

50/50 chance

If she comes, I will be happy.

 

仮定法過去完了

If I had been a bird (then),

1)   I would have flwn to you (then).

2) I would fly to you (now).

 

以下、仮定法未来

 If she should cry, I will/ would be sad.

 If the earth were to explode, we would die.

Gsc4-5 200524sun

Minimum wage legislation has been controversial since its inception: its proponents argue that [the people who are most economically vulnerable are safeguarded from being exploited, while other critics argue it leads to people being unemployed].

 

(A) the people who are most economically vulnerable are safeguarded from being exploited, while other critics argue it leads to people being unemployed

 

(B) the people safeguarded from being exploited are the most economically vulnerable, whereas the critics argue it leads to people being unemployed

 

(C) it is a safeguard so that the most economically vulnerable are not exploited, whereas the critics contend that it is a cause of unemployment

 

(D) it safeguards the most economically vulnerable from exploitation, while its critics contend that it is a cause of unemployment

 

(E) it has safeguarded the people who are most economically vulnerable from being exploited, while its critics contend that it leads to people being unemployed

 

解法のテクニック

Concise/Diction:

lead to N

lead to V

lead to (意味上の主語)~ing    xxxx

Concise: who are?

Concise: is a safegard v safegards....とすると?!

Gsc4-4  200520wed

[Unlike] neighboring Pompeii, the inhabitants of Herculaneum had time to flee before their city was buried under volcanic mud when Vesuvius erupted on August 24 in A.D. 79.

 

(A) Unlike

 

(B) Unlike those of

 

(C) Different from those of

 

(D) Different than those in

 

(E) Dissimilar to

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Unlike O, S V

Gsc4-3 200517sun

[Since Ruth Benedict was an early and outspoken opponent of racial prejudice, and she] argued prophetically that the greatest weapon the country possessed to combat racism was the legal authority of the federal government.

 

(A) Since Ruth Benedict was an early and outspoken opponent of racial prejudice, and she

 

(B) An early and outspoken opponent of racial prejudice, Ruth Benedict

 

(C) Ruth Benedict, who was early in her outspoken opposition against racial prejudice

 

(D) Ruth Benedict's early and outspoken opposition to racial prejudice

 

(E) The outspoken Ruth Benedict, early opposed to racial prejudice,

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar: 接続詞の重複には気を付けよう。

SV: argueした主体は?

Conciseに表現すると。。。?!

Gsc4-2 200513wed

Because Congress acted to adjust food stamp benefits [only once a year for inflation, not two times, there was a benefit reduction of] $600 million annually.

 

(A) only once a year for inflation, not two times, there was a benefit reduction of

 

(B) only once annually for inflation, not two times, the amount paid in benefits were reduced by

 

(C) only once a year for inflation, not two times, the reduction of the amount paid in benefits was

 

(D) for inflation only once a year, rather than twice, the amount paid in benefits was reduced by

 

(E) for inflation only one time a year, not twice, there was a reduction of the amount paid in benefits of

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness:

one time→once,

two timestwice

Gsc4-1 200510sun

Puritan tracts were concerned with hell and damnation, and fiction was considered [as of harm to] the reader's moral fiber.

 

(A) as of harm to

 

(B) to be a harm to

 

(C) harmful to

 

(D) as harming

 

(E) to be harming to

 

解法のテクニック

concise/ diction: consider OC

Gsc3-40 200506wed

A new method of deriving the vaccine for hoof-and-mouth disease from E. coli bacteria allows for levels of serum production [that are more than a thousand times as high per bacterium than] was previously possible.

 

(A) that are more than a thousand times as high per bacterium than

 

(B) that are more than a thousand times higher per bacterium as

 

(C) that are more than a thousand times higher per bacterium than

 

(D) as much as a thousand times as high per bacterium than

 

(E) as much as a thousand times higher per bacterium as

 

解法のテクニック

more->than/ as->as

Gsc3-39 200503sun

The architectural problem of how to enclose and articulate interior space becomes [increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger].

 

(A) increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger

 

(B) ever more critical as the size of the space increases

 

(C) more and more critical as the size of the space will increase

 

(D) one that is increasingly critical as there is an increase in the size of the space

 

(E) more critical with the size of the space getting larger

 

解法のテクニック

★基本:Conciseness

★基本:Grammar: 副詞節の規則は?

応用:Redundancyを探す。

Gsc3-38 200429wed

Despite its inconveniences and irritations, jury service [can, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform].

 

(A) can, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform

 

(B) can be, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform

 

(C) can be, and often has been, the most rewarding civic duty the average citizens perform

 

(D) may have been, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty the average citizens perform

 

(E) might be, and often has been, the most rewarding civic duty average citizens have performed

 

解法のテクニック

動詞の並列は、そのすべてが目的格にちゃんと接合するように!

★動詞は形を変えると、当然意味も変わる。。。。。とすると?!

Gsc3-37 200426sun

[In combination, the trend of demographics and economics indicate] that the regions of the United States will continue to become more disparate in their problems and needs.

 

(A) In combination, the trend of demographics and economics indicate

 

(B) The trend of demographics and economics combined indicates

 

(C) Demographic trends, in combination with economic, indicate

 

(D) Demographic and economic trends, in combination, indicate

 

(E) Demographic trends combine with the economic to indicate

 

解法のテクニック

SVの組み合わせが明快なのは。。。。?!

Gsc3-36 200422wed

According to the space agency, the proposed transmitter [would not last barely a month if it is] subjected to the intense heat of space.

 

(A) would not last barely a month if it is

 

(B) could not last hardly a month if it is

 

(C) will last no more than hardly a month if it is

 

(D) would not last a month if it will be

 

(E) will not last a month if

 

解法のテクニック

語法:二重否定禁止。

★時制は。。。。。?!

Gsc3-35 200419sun

Until fairly recently pre-Columbian artifacts were [regarded more often to be objects of archaeological interest than] artistic quality.

 

(A) regarded more often to be objects of archaeological interest than

 

(B) considered more often to be objects of archaeological interest rather than

 

(C) regarded more often as objects of archaeological interest than as objects of

 

(D) considered as being more often objects of archaeological interest than of

 

(E) regarded more often as being objects of archaeological interest instead of

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: regard A as B

Concise: being?............とすると?!

Gsc2-34 200415wed

Unlike [most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires] protection from corrosion.

 

(A) most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(B) most suspension bridges, the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge's main cables are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(C) most suspension bridges, the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge has its main cables made of ungalvanized wire, which now require

 

(D) those of most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(E) those of most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now require

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Unlike O, S VOSはパラレル)

whichが指すのは。。。。。。?!

Gsc3-33 200412sun

Health insurers have begun to demand [that the providers of mental health services be accountable for establishing] that the treatments they administer, under various therapeutic theories, are in fact beneficial.

 

(A) that the providers of mental health services be accountable for establishing

 

(B) accountability from the providers of mental health services to establish

 

(C) that the providers of mental health services have accountability to establish

 

(D) accountability for the providers of mental health services, establishing

 

(E) accountability from those who provide mental health services in order to establish

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: demand that--動詞原形--

Conciseness/Elegance: have, make, do+ N---??とすると?!

Gsc3-32 200408wed

In 1719 the Meissen manufacturers found a way of combining kaolin, quartz, and feldspar, a kind of potash, to manufacture a hard-paste porcelain [which was comparable to what was being imported by Europeans from the Far East for centuries].

 

(A) which was comparable to what was being imported by Europeans from the Far East for centuries

 

(B) which compared with that which Europeans imported from the Far East for centuries

 

(C) comparable with what Europeans imported from the Far East for centuries

 

(D) comparable to what Europeans had imported for centuries from the Far East

 

(E) that could be compared to what Europeans imported for centuries from the Far East

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness: which/that必要?

Disction: comparable to=匹敵....とすると?!

Gsc3-31 200405sun

The key discovery in the scientific effort to understand fire was made in 1774 when Lavoisier recognized that [the apparent disappearance of matter in flames is an illusion].

 

(A) the apparent disappearance of matter in flames is an illusion

 

(B) the matter that apparently disappears in flames is an illusion

 

(C) the disappearance of matter in flames is apparently an illusion

 

(D) it was an illusion that there is an apparent disappearance of matter in flames

 

(E) it was an illusion that matter apparently disappears in flames

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: apparently x/ seeming x

Conciseなのは。。。。?!

Gsc3- 30 200401wed

 City planners in Detroit hope that the renewal project extending along the eastern riverfront will establish a population [that lives and works downtown and also provides] the office space needed to attract new businesses.

 

(A) that lives and works downtown and also provides

 

(B) to live and work downtown and also provide

 

(C) that lives as well as works downtown and also provide

 

(D) which lives as well as works downtown and also provides

 

(E) who live as well as work downtown and also provides

 

解法のテクニック

whoは人のみ

whichは非制限用法

andの後ろは何にかかる?

Gsc3-29 200329sun

[ A publication may be sued for libel in any state where it regularly circulates under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court.]

 

(A) A publication may be sued for libel in any state where it regularly circulates under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court.

 

(B) A publication may be sued for libel in any state where it has regular circulation under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court.

 

(C) Under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court, a publication may be sued for libel in any state in which it regularly circulates.

 

(D) Under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court, a publication may be sued for libel in any state in which there is regular circulation.

 

(E) Under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court, there may be a suit for libel in any state in which a publication regularly circulates.

 

解法のテクニック

Misplaced Modifier: under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Courtがかかるのは、suedの文circulatesの文

Gsc3-28 200325wed

 After three months of investigation, it became apparent that both local and state taxes have not [and probably will not be paid] by the insolvent corporation .

 

(A) and probably will not be paid

 

(B) been and probably will not be paid

 

(C) been paid and probably will not be

 

(D) been paid nor probably will be

 

(E) and will not be paid, probably,

 

解法のテクニック

V and V -> 後ろの接続を見る

Gsc3-27 200322sun

 Alcohol is the only drug that is soluble in both fat and [water; as such it can enter all parts of the human body, affecting] virtually every cell and biological pathway.

 

(A) water; as such it can enter all parts of the human body, affecting

 

(B) water; as such entering all parts of the human body, and affecting

 

(C) water, as such entering all parts of the human body, which affects

 

(D) water, and as such entering all parts of the human body to affect

 

(E) water, which can enter all parts of the human body to affect

 

解法のテクニック

whichは先行詞との整合性を見る

andはパラレルを確認する( A and B  Bは釣り合ってるか)

★セミコロン(;)は接続詞の役割を持つ。。。とすると?!

Gsc3-26 200318wed

The writer Alice Walker [regards Stevie Wonder to be a spiritual singer rather than] a pop singer, and so she opened The Color Purple with a quotation from his song “Do Like You."

 

(A) regards Stevie Wonder to be a spiritual singer rather than

 

(B) regards Stevie Wonder as being a spiritual singer instead of

 

(C) considers Stevie Wonder a spiritual singer rather than

 

(D) considers Stevie Wonder to bc a spiritual singer instead of

 

(E) considers Stevie Wonder as being a spiritual singer rather than

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: reagard/ considerの用法は?

Gsc3-25 200321sun

 Searching for tangible evidence of the Roman past in ancient Jerusalem, [Israeli archaeologists have excavated the main Roman entryway into the Old City and succeeded in unearthing a guard tower], the tallest preserved Roman structure in the country.

 

(A) Israeli archaeologists have excavated the main Roman entryway into the Old City and succeeded in unearthing a guard tower,

 

(B) the main Roman entryway into the Old City was excavated by Israeli archaeologists, who succeeded in unearthing a guard tower,

 

(C) the guard tower successfully unearthed by Israeli archaeologists excavating the main Roman entryway into the Old City is

 

(D) the Israeli archaeologists' excavation of the main Roman entryway into the Old City has succeeded in unearthing a guard tower that is

 

(E) success was achieved by Israeli archaeologists h unearthing a guard tower as they were excavating the main Roman entryway to the Old City,

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier一発!

Gsc2-24 200311wed

 A growing number of the decisions made at federal, state, and local levels [ involves technical judgments that much of the elecorate is unable knowledgeably to challenge].

 

(A) involves technical judgments that much of the electorate is unable knowledgeably to challenge

 

(B) involves technical judgments unable to be challenged knowledgeably by much of the electorate

 

(C) involves technical judgments that cannot be challenged knowledgeably by much of the electorate

 

(D) involve technical judgments that much of the electorate cannot knowledgeably challenge

 

(E) involve technical judgments incapable of being knowledgeably challenged by much of the electorate

 

解法のテクニック

s/p(a number of)

受動<能動。。。。。とすると?!

Gsc3-23 200308sun

 Black pepper is the dried fruit of the Piper nigrum, a woody vine that grows only in tropical regions [with about one hundred inches of rainfall a year, on the average, alternating with[ long periods of dry heat.

 

(A) with about one hundred inches of rainfall a year, on the average, alternating with

 

(B) where rainfall, averaging about one hundred inches a year, alternates with

 

(C) with, alternately, about one hundred inches of average annual rainfall and

 

(D) averaging about one hundred inches of rainfall annually, alternating between

 

(E) averaging annually about one hundred inches of rainfall alternately with

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: A alternates with B

同一表現異場面使用の禁止。。。とすると?!

Gsc3-22 200301sun

Tecumseh urged [all Native American tribes, even former enemies, to resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it there will be] common ownership of all tribal lands.

 

(A) all Native American tribes, even former enemies, to resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it there will be

 

(B) that all Native American tribes, and even former enemies, resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it there would be

 

(c) that all Native American tribes, even former enemies, should be resistant to the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it they would have

 

(D) all Native American tribes, even former enemies, to resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy under which there would be

 

(E) all Native American tribes, and even former enemies, that they were to resist the cession of individual parcels of land, form an intertribal confederacy, and under it they would have

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: urge one to V

Concise: and under it < under which  とすると。。。?!

Gsc3-21 200226wed

Unlike earlier satellites that last a year or two before failing, [the life span of the new orbiting observatories is expected] to be ten to twenty years.

 

(A) the life span of the new orbiting observatories is expected to be

 

(B) the life span of the new orbiting observatories, it is expected, will be

 

(c) it is expected that the life span of the new orbiting observatories would be

 

(I)) the expectation is for the new orbiting observatories to have a life span of

 

(E) the new orbiting observatories are expected to have a life span of

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレル:Unlike O, S Vは、OSがパラレル、とすると。。。?!

Gsc3-20 200223sun

When rates were raised in 1985, postal service officials predicted [they would make further rate increases unnecessary] for at least three years.

 

(A) they would make further rate increases unnecessary

 

(B) they would mean that further rate increases would not be needed

 

(C) that it would not be necessary for further rate increases

 

(D) that the increase would make further rate increases unnecessary

 

(E) further rate increases will not be needed

 

解法のテクニック

that節にはthatを!

Reference: they/itとは.......!

Gsc3-19 200219wed

To help preserve ancient Egyptian monuments threatened by high water tables, a Swedish engineering firm has proposed installing pumps, perhaps solar powered, [to lower the underground water level and dig trenches] around the bases of the stone walls.

 

(A) to lower the underground water level and dig trenches

 

(B) to lower the underground water level and to dig trenches

 

(C) to lower the underground water level and digging trenches

 

(D) that lower the underground water level and that trenches be dug

 

(E) that lower the underground water level and trench digging

 

解法のテクニック

何がパラレルか?to---or,,,,,,,?!

Gsc3-18 200216sun

 [Under Napoleon the French were not able to organize an adequate supply system, and it] was a major cause of the failure of their invasion of Russia.

 

(A) Under Napoleon the French were not able to organize an adequate supply system, and it

 

(B) The French being unable to organize an adequate supply system under Napoleon

 

(C) For the French under Napoleon, to be unable to organize an adequate supply system

 

(D) The inability of the French under Napoleon to organize an adequate supply system

 

(E) The French inability under Napoleon of organizing an adequate supply system

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: ability (of one) to Vと考えると。。。?!

 

 

Reference: it(指示語)の対象は名詞のみ。

Conciseness: being unable to->inability

Gsc3-17 200212wed

 [Although just inside the orbit of] Jupiter, amateur astronomers with good telescopes should be able to see the comet within the next few weeks.

 

(A) Although just inside the orbit of

 

(B) Although it is just inside the orbit of

 

(C) Just inside the orbit of

 

(D) Orbiting just inside

 

(E) Having orbited just inside

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modiier: inside the oribitにいるのは。。。?!

Gsc3-16 200209sun

 One of Ronald Reagan's first acts as President was to rescind President Carter's directive [that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries].

 

(A) that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries

 

(B) that any chemical be prohibited from sale to other countries that was banned on medical grounds in the United States

 

(C) prohibiting the sale to other countries of any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States

 

(D) prohibiting that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States is sold to other countries

 

(E) that any chemical banned in the United States on medical grounds is prohibited from being sold to other countries

 

解法のテクニック

directive->要求+that+原形

Diction: prohibit O/ prohibit one from -ing

とすると。。。?!

Gsc3-15 200205wed

According to his own account, Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, the sculptor of the Statue of Liberty, [modeled the face of the statue like his mother's and the body like his wife's].

 

(A) modeled the face of the statue like his mother's and the body like his wife's

 

(B) modeled the face of the statue after that of his mother and the body after that of his wife

 

(C) modeled the face of the statue like his mother and the body like his wife

 

(D) made the face of the statue after his mother and the body after his wife

 

(E) made the face of the statue look like his mother and the body look like his wife

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:A-a, B-b

Diction: 「ちなんで」はどう言う?

Gsc3-14 200202sun

Several senior officials spoke to the press on condition [that they not be named] in the story.

 

(A) that they not be named

 

(B) that their names will not be used

 

(C) that their names are not used

 

(D) of not being named

 

(E) they will not be named

 

解法のテクニック

要求表現+that節は、動詞原形

英語は動詞を軸とする言語

とすると。。。。。?!


Gsc3-13 200129wed

According to scientists at the University of California, the pattern of changes that have occurred in human DNA over the millennia [indicate the possibility that everyone alive today might be descended from a single female ancestor who] lived in Africa sometime between 140,000 and 280,000 years ago.

 

(A) indicate the possibility that everyone alive today might be descended from a single female ancestor who

 

(B) indicate that everyone alive today might possibly be a descendant of a single female ancestor who had

 

(C) may indicate that everyone alive today has descended from a single female ancestor who had

 

(D) indicates that everyone alive today may be a descendant of a single female ancestor who

 

(E) indicates that everyone alive today might be a descendant from a single female ancestor who

 

解法のテクニック

Sはsingular or plural?

可能性がある(may)のはindicateでいいのかな?

文は明確に(Elements of Style):不要な婉曲廃止。。。。とすると?

Gsc3-12 200126sun

Most nations regard their airspace [as extending] upward as high as an aircraft can fly; no specific altitude, however, has been officially recognized as a boundary.

 

(A) as extending

 

(B) as the extent

 

(C) to be an extent

 

(D) to be an extension

 

(E) to extend

 

 

解法のテクニック

diction: regard A as B

upward は動きを表す、とすると。。。?

Gsc3-11 200122wed

 Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise most actively [have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary].

 

(A) have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary

 

(B) have half the chance, or less, of dying of a heart attack than those who are sedentary do

 

(C) have half the chance that they will die of a heart attack, or less, than those who are sedentary do

 

(D) are at least fifty percent less likely to die of a heart attack as those who are sedentary

 

(E) are at least fifty percent less likely than those who are sedentary to die of a heart attack

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:thanmoreには対応するが原級は?

 

 

diction: likely

1) be likely to

2) most/ less(程度)likely

3) it is likely that

 

Gsc3-10 200119sun

 More than five thousand years ago, Chinese scholars accurately described the flow of blood as a continuous circle controlled by the heart, [but it went] unnoticed in the West.

 

(A) but it went

 

(B) but it was

 

(C) although it was

 

(D) but the discovery went

 

(E) although the discovery was

 

解法のテクニック

diction: go unnoticed

★より明確なのは。。。。?

Gsc3-9 200115wed

 Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the deliberate and even brutal aggression integral to some forms of competitive athletics [increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts] among crowds of spectators dominated by young adult males.

 

(A) increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts

 

(B) increase the likelihood that there will be an eruption of imitative violence

 

(C) increase the likelihood of imitative violence erupting

 

(D) increases the likelihood for imitative violence to erupt

 

(E) increases the likelihood that imitative violence will erupt

 

解法のテクニック

singular/ plural

diction: likelihood

Gsc3-8 200112sun

Studies of the human "sleep-wake cycle" have practical relevance for matters ranging from duty assignments in nuclear submarines and air-traffic control towers [to the staff of] shifts in 24-hour factories.

 

(A) to the staff of

 

(B) to those who staff

 

(C) to the staffing of

 

(D) and staffing

 

(E) and the staff of

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレル:from A to B

とすると。。。?

Gsc3-7 200108wed

As many as 300 of [the 720 paintings attributed to Rembrandt may] actually be the works of his students or other admirers.

 

(A) the 720 paintings attributed to Rembrandt may

 

(B) the 720 paintings attributed to be Rembrandt's might

 

(C) the 720 paintings that were attributed to be by Rembrandt may

 

(D) the 720 Rembrandt paintings that were once attributed to him might

 

(E) Rembrandt's paintings, although 720 were once attributed to him, may

 

解法のテクニック

diction: attribute-to O (attribute -to V xxx)

★指示語は名詞のみを対象とする(所有格は対象外)

that wereconcise?

Gsc3-6 200105sun

Because young children do not organize their attention or perceptions systematically, [like adults], they may notice and remember details that their elders ignore.

 

(A) like adults

 

(B) unlike an adult

 

(C) as adults

 

(D) as adults do

 

(E) as an adult

 

解法のテクニック

Like O vs as節:Like O, S V/ S, like O, Vは最強。

S V N, like O  ????

as

Cf  as (~として)

 

Gsc3-5 200101wed

By studying the primitive visual systems of single-cell aquatic organisms, [biophysicists have discovered a striking similarity between algae and cows], a similarity that indicates the common evolutionary origin of plants and animals: both algae and cows produce a light-sensitive protein called rhodopsin.

 

(A) biophysicists have discovered a striking similarity between algae and cows

 

(B) a striking similarity between algae and cows has been discovered by biophysicists

 

(C) there is a striking similarity that biophysicists have discovered between algae and cows

 

(D) the discovery of a striking similarity between algae and cows was made by biophysicists

 

(E) algae and cows have a striking similarity that was discovered by biophysicists

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier一発!:studyしている主体がsubjectとすると。。。。。?

Gsc3-4 191229sun

Framed by traitorous colleagues, Alfred Dreyfus was imprisoned for twelve years before [there was exoneration and his freedom].

 

(A) there was exoneration and his freedom

 

(B) he was to be exonerated with freedom

 

(C) being exonerated and freed

 

(D) exoneration and his freedom

 

(E) being freed, having been exonerated

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレルのルール: A and B

A Bをきれいに釣り合わせると。。。?

Gsc3-3 191225wed

 It was the loss of revenue from declines in tourism that in 1935 led the Saudi [authorities' granting a concession for oil exploration to the company that would later be known by the name] of Aramco.

 

(A) authorities' granting a concession for oil exploration to the company that would later be known by the name of

 

(B) authorities' granting a concession for oil exploration to the company later to be known as named

 

(C) authorities granting a concession for oil exploration to the company that would later be known by the name of

 

(D) authorities to grant a concession for oil exploration to the company that later will be known as being

 

(E) authorities to grant a concession for oil exploration to the company later to be known as

 

解法のテクニック

dictionルール:

Lead ( one) to Vok

Lead ( one) to Ook

とすると、

Lead ( one) to (意味上の主語)-ingは?は?

dictionルール:

 be known to V

 be known as N

とすると。。。?

Gsc3-2 191222sun

Most victims of infectious mononucleosis recover after a few weeks of listlessness, [but an unlucky few may suffer] for years.

 

(A) but an unlucky few may suffer

 

(B) and an unlucky few have suffered

 

(C) that an unlucky few might suffer

 

(D) that a few being unlucky may suffer

 

(E) but a few who, being unlucky, suffered

 

解法のテクニック

★節とのパラレルは?

an unlucky fewは報道常套表現。

★動詞部分が異なると意味が異なる、とすると。。。?

Gsc3-1 191218wed

During the first one hundred fifty years of the existence of this republic, no one expected the press [was] fair; newspapers were mostly shrill, scurrilous, and partisan.

 

(A) was

 

(B) to be

 

(C) of being

 

(D) should be

 

(E) had to be

 

解法のテクニック

diction: expect one to Vとすると。。。。?

Gsc2-40 191215sun

The Mormons' interest in genealogy stems from [a belief as to family relationships being intended

to remain] eternal.

 

(A) a belief as to family relationships being intended to remain

 

(B) beliefs that family relationships are intended that they be

 

(C) a belief that family relationships are intended to be

 

(D) their believing that family relationships intend to remain

 

(E) beliefs in family relationships intended to be

 

解法のテクニック

as toは?→look up "The Elements"

★意味上の主語まで持ち出す順動詞って?

diction: intendは?で、なににかかる?(ambiguous modifier)

Gsc2-39 191211wed

Unlike grains, cotton, or tobacco, [spoilage is so quick with peanuts that farmers cannot store

them from year to year].

 

(A) spoilage is so quick with peanuts that farmers cannot store them from year to year

 

(B) because of quick spoilage, farmers cannot store peanuts from year to year

 

(C) farmers cannot store peanuts from year to year because they spoil so quickly

 

(D) peanuts cannot be stored by farmers from year to year because of quick spoilage

 

(E) peanuts spoil so quickly that farmers cannot store them from year to year

 

解法のテクニック

Unlike O, S VOとSはパラレル)

★能動 vs 受動は当然。。。?

Gsc2-38 191208sun

Most meteoroids are reduced to small fragments when they encounter the lower layers of the

Earth's atmosphere because [of air friction's producing heat which melts away surface material].

 

(A) of air friction's producing heat which melts away surface material

 

(B) of heat produced by air friction melting away surface material

 

(C) heat is produced by air friction, which melts away their surface material

 

(D) the heat produced by air friction melts away their surface material

 

(E) surface material is melted away by air friction's producing heat

 

解法のテクニック

because vs because ofは当然。。。?

★能動 vs 受動は当然。。。?

becauseの対象は?

Gsc2-37 191205thu

Because the pesticide has been found to cause birth defects and fetal death in some animals, the federal Environmental Protection Agency is now considering [whether the evidence warrants restricting its use or removing it] from the market entirely.

 

(A) whether the evidence warrants restricting its use or removing it

 

(B) whether there is evidence that warrants a restriction of use or removal

 

(C) whether or not the evidence warrants restrictions of use or removing

 

(D) if there is evidence that warrants restriction of its use or removing it

 

(E) if the evidence warrants that its use be restricted or that it be removed

 

解法のテクニック

whether vs ifは当然。。。?

パラレル( A or B)で考えると。。。?

Gsc2-36 191201sun

Corporate finance committees do not plan the detailed activities of the various divisions in a

large firm, but [by their allocation of investment funds they make strategic judgments as to where the firm should expand].

 

(A) by their allocation of investment funds they make strategic judgments as to where the firm should expand

 

(B) when they allocate investment funds, they make strategic judgments about where the firm might be expanding

 

(C) they make strategic judgments on where the firm should expand when they allocate investment funds

 

(D) by allocating investment funds, they will make strategic judgments about where the firm might be expanding

 

(E) allocations of investments funds as to where the firm should expand are their exercise in strategic judgment

 

解法のテクニック

●動詞部分(should)を変えたら意味が変わってくるね。

●一見のかっこよさにだまされるな!by their allocation of investment fundsは何にかかる?(they make strategic judgments? Or  where the firm should expand?)

Gsc2-35 191127wed

When scrap steel is recycled, energy is saved in the mining, transportation, and [processing of not only iron ore but also of coal and limestone].

 

(A) processing of not only iron ore but also of coal and limestone

 

(B) processing not only of iron ore but also of coal and limestone

 

(C) processing not only of iron ore but also coal and limestone

 

(D) the processing of not only iron ore but of coal and limestone as well

 

(E) the processing of not iron ore only but of coal and limestone as well

 

解法のテクニック

Easy-peasy! Not only A but also B. A-Bパラレル、だから。。。。?!

Gsc2-34 191125mon

[Rejecting its argument that the Masters Dog Training Club's primary aim was to teach people to train dogs, the court ruled the club ineligible for tax exemption as an educational group].

 

(A) Rejecting its argument that the Masters Dog Training Club's primary aim was to teach people to train dogs, the court ruled the club ineligible for tax exemption as an educational group.

 

(B) In rejecting the Masters Dog Training Club's argument that their primary aim was to teach people to train dogs, the court ruled the club ineligible to be exempted of taxes as an educational group .

 

(C) Rejecting the argument that the primary aim of the Masters Dog Training Club was to teach people to train dogs, the court ruled that the club was ineligible for exemption from taxes as an educational group.

 

(D) The club was not to be exempted of taxes as an educational group, ruled the court by rejecting its argument that the primary aim of the Masters Dog Training Club was teaching people to train dogs.

 

(E) The court ruled the Masters Dog Training Club not eligible to be exempted from taxes as an educational group, rejecting the argument that the primary aim was to teach people to train dogs.

 

解法のテクニック

1 指示語(it)は名刺しかさせないから、(A)(B)はアウト。また指し得るものがたくさんあると。。。?

2 eligibleidiomは。。。?

Gsc2-33 191120wed

According to a government study, the lush swamps and marshes of the Mississippi delta, among the finest wetlands in the world, are vanishing at a rate of 39 square miles a year, [as fast as two and a half times the rate that was] previously thought.

 

(A) as fast as two and a half times the rate that was

 

(B) two and a half times as fast as it had been

 

(C) two and a half times faster than

 

(D) a rate two and a half times as fast as

 

(E) which is a rate two and a half times faster than had been

 

解法のテクニック

1 xx倍の公式:

  xx times as A as B ( xx times as fast as)

  xx times more A than B ( xx times faster than)

  xx times the 尺度 of B ( xx times the speed of)

 

2 以前考えられていたのと比べて: than (previously) thought/ believed/ imagined/ known….

とすると。。。。?

Gsc2-32 191117

History has not been kind to Sara Teasdale, but she won a Pulitzer award and saw a book of her verse on the best-seller list, a feat [none of the poets of today will likely duplicate].

 

(A) none of the poets of today will likely duplicate

 

(B) no poet today is likely to duplicate

 

(C) no poet today will likely duplicate

 

(D) poets of today are not likely to reduplicate

 

(E) likely to be unduplicated by poets of today

 

解法のテクニック

1 diction:

1) be likely to

2) most/ less(程度表現を入れ)likely

3) It is likely that

以外はphony !

2 あいまいnot->no

3 受け身より能動。。。。とすると?!

Gsc2-31 191113

Since laws reflect the concerns and values of their creators, the greater the differences between those [making the laws and those expected to obey the laws means a greater] probability of violations.

 

(A) making the laws and those expected to obey the laws means a greater

 

(B) making the laws and those expected to obey them increases the

 

(C) making the laws and those expected to obey them, the greater

 

(D) who make the laws and those who are expected to obey the laws, the greater the

 

(E) who make the laws and those who are expected to obey the laws increases the

 

解法のテクニック

1 The比較〜、the比較」は簡単だね。あとはconciseでみると。。。?

Gsc2-30 191110

[Millions of workers have jobs that are able to be done as well at home as at the office, instead of

consuming the gasoline used to get to work.].

 

(A) Millions of workers have jobs that are able to be done as well at home as at the office, instead of consuming the gasoline used to get to work.

 

(B) Millions of workers have jobs that can be done as well at home as the office, rather than consume the gasoline they must use to get to work.

 

(C) Instead of consuming the gasoline used to get to work, millions of workers have jobs that are able to be done as well at home as at the office.

 

(D) Rather than consume the gasoline used to get to work, millions of workers can do their jobs as well at home as the office.

 

(E) Instead of using gasoline to get to work, millions of workers could do their jobs as well at home as at the office.

 

解法のテクニック

1 conciseness:  be able to->can

2 パラレル:  A rather than B

3 redundancyを考えると。。。。。?

Gsc2-29 191107

[The rate of metabolism reactions of an organism of a complex nature is limited by the rate at which] waste products are removed through the animal's specialized circulatory and excretory systems.

 

(A) The rate of metabolism reactions of an organism of a complex nature is limited by the rate at which

 

(B) The rate of metabolic reactions in a complex organism is limited by the rate at which

 

(C) The rate of metabolism reactions in a complex organism are limited by the rate which

 

(D) A complex organism's rate of metabolic reactions are limited by the rate at which

 

(E) A complex organism's rate of metabolism reactions is limited by the rate at which

 

解法のテクニック

1 (at) a/the rate at whichは強い!!

Speed/ paceも同様。

ついでに、(to) an/the extent/degree to which

2 名詞を修飾するのは形容詞。とすると。。。?

Gsc2-28 191103

In the Ann Arbor court case, the parents of fifteen Black children successfully brought suit against the school system for, first of all, failing to take the children's vernacular into account in teaching them, and [secondary, for their failure that the children did not learn] to read Standard English.

 

(A) secondary, for their failure that the children did not learn

 

(B) secondly, for their failure to teach the children

 

(C) secondly, that they failed and the children did not learn

 

(D) second, that they failed to teach the children

 

(E) second, failing to teach the children

 

解法のテクニック

1) secondaryは形容詞、secondlyは副詞。でもそんな悠長なこと言ってる以前に、conciseなのは?またパラレルで考えると?

2) fail to V= Vに失敗、ならば。。。?

Gsc2-27 191030

The versions of Spanish spoken in Madrid and in Buenos Aires are [as distinct one from the other as] the kinds of English spoken in Edinburgh and in Atlanta.

 

(A) as distinct one from the other as

 

(B) as distinct from each other as

 

(C) distinctive from one another as are

 

(D) distinctive from each other as are

 

(E) as distinctive one from the other as

 

解法のテクニック

1 diction: distinctive独特の->be distinct from異なる)より、(A) or (B)

2 each other お互い(二者の間)

 cf one another お互い(三者以上の間)

Gsc2-26 191028

 To Adam Smith, economics was thought to have much to teach about the creation of wealth but relatively little about its distribution.

 

(A) To Adam Smith, economics was thought to have

 

(B) To Adam Smith's belief, economics has

 

(C) Adam Smith believed that economics had

 

(D) To Adam Smith's belief, economics had

 

(E) Economics, to Adam Smith's belief, has

 

解法のテクニック

基本英作テクニック。Concisenessで考えると(英文はSVが軸)。。。?

Gsc2-25 191024

Baseball is unique [for the major sports because it is the only ball game in which the team does not have possession of the ball on offense] .

 

(A) for the major sports because it is the only ball game in which the team does not have possession of the ball on offense

 

(B) for the major sports in that it is the only ball game that the team on offense does not have possession of the ball

 

(C) among major sports as the only ball game that the team on offense does not have possession of the ball

 

(D) among major sports in that it is the only ball game in which the team on offense does not have possession of the ball

 

(E) among the major sports by being the only ball game in which the team does not have possession of the ball on offense

 

解法のテクニック

1 Clarity(前置詞の意味):for→among〜のうちで

2 Misplaced Modifier: (C) (D) (E) のうち、on offenceの正しい配置は?

Gsc2-24 191021mon

World oil prices would have to rise before companies could recover the costs of extracting Alaskan natural gas, [transportation to the Alaska coast, where it will go to processing plants there], and shipping it to markets in the lower United States.

 

(A) transportation to the Alaska coast, where it will go to processing plants there

 

(B) transportation to Alaska coast processing plants

 

(C) of transportation to processing plants on the Alaska coast

 

(D) transporting it to the Alaska coast, where it will go to processing plants there

 

(E) transporting it to processing plants on the Alaska coast

 

解法のテクニック

1 パラレルのルール:A, B, and C ABCはつり合いが取れているかな?この場合、the costs ofの後ろを見る。下線のないextracting-ingなら、、、、?

Gsc2-23 191017thu

President Carter urged that women as well as men be required to register for the draft.

 

(A) as well as men be

 

(B) as well as men are to be

 

(C) just as men ought to be

 

(D) like men should be

 

(E) like men are to be

 

解法のテクニック

1 ルール:要求表現のthat節は、動詞原形を用いる。(urge+that+V原形)

その際、shouldは絶対に用いてはならない。

とすると。。。。。?

Gsc2-22 191014mon

An agrarian society such as the United States at the close of the eighteenth century could produce the food [needed so that they could sustain themselves, but not the tools for advancement and competition] with other nations.

 

(A) needed so that they could sustain themselves, but not the tools for advancement and competition

 

(B) needed for sustaining themselves, but not produce the tools for advancement and competition

 

(C) necessary to sustain themselves, but not the tools to advance and compete

 

(D) necessary to sustain itself, but not the tools to advance and compete

 

(E) necessary for it to sustain itself, but not produce the tools to advance and compete

 

解法のテクニック

1 reference: 指示語は文の中の名詞を指す必要がある。(A) (B) (C) they/ themselvesが指している名詞は…….

Gsc2-21 191011fri

[Like that of Haydn] , Schubert also wrote a great deal for the stage, but he is remembered principally for his concert-hall and chamber music.

 

(A) Like that of Haydn

 

(B) Like Haydn's music

 

(C) Similar to Haydn's music

 

(D) Similar to Haydn

 

(E) Like Haydn

 

解法のテクニック

Concise

Like O, S V

S, like O, V

 

Cf Beware of

S V N, like O ???

Gsc2-19 191007

When bitter managerial conflicts plague a small company, [conflicts that in the past might have led to dissolution of the business, executives are likely to] turn to outside professional counselors to help resolve disagreements.

 

(A) conflicts plague a small company, conflicts that in the past might have led to dissolution of the business, executives are likely to

 

(B) conflicts plague a small company, conflicts that might have in the past led to its dissolution, executives likely will

 

(C) conflicts plague a small company, which in the past might have led to the business' dissolution, executives are liable to

 

(D) conflicts, which in the past might have led to dissolution of the business, plague a small company, executives are liable to

 

(E) conflicts, which in the past might have led to its dissolution, plague a small company, executives tend to

 

解法のテクニック

可能性・蓋然性を表すlikelyの用法は、

一位:be likely to V ………..1

二位:most/less likely (程度表現を必ず伴った副詞として)

三位:It is likely that- (仮主語、仮目的格を伴い)

それ以外はアウト

 

ダメな例

一位:もどき(due/tend/owing/特にliablebe liable for以外はダメ)………2. 3

二位:程度表現のない副詞( ex. will likelywillをつけてダマそうとしてる)

三位:婉曲とのけんか(ex would most likely→可能性と高さを表すlikelyに対してwouldがブレーキをかけている)

 

でも、ぐちゃぐちゃ考える以前に、「同格はつお〜い!」ルールを適用すると。。。。。?

Gsc2-18 191003thu

Although low in per capita income, India is [among the ten most industrialized nations, among the only seven countries that have launched their own earth satellites, and among] the three countries that have the largest pools of technically trained persons.

 

(A) among the only seven countries that have launched their own earth satellites, and among

 

(B) the only seven countries to have launched their own earth satellites, and

 

(C) among the only seven countries to have launched their own earth satellites, and

 

(D) the seven countries that are the only ones that launched their own earth satellites, and

 

(E) the seven countries that have been the only ones to launch their own earth satellites, and

 

解法のテクニック

1 パラレル( A, B, and C )の基本構造不備で、(C) はダメ。

2 concisenessの点で、よけいなamongがある(A)はよろしくない。

3 diction ( the only N to V/ the first N to V) で考えると。。。?

 

(ちなみに、パラレル( A, B, and C )の点で、<数字、数字、and 数字>の方が、一個だけonly+数字がまざってるのよりエレガントと考えると、1, 2を一気に処理できる)

Gsc2-17 190930mon

The profile of the typical family in the United States is changing: a recent study shows that for the past decade, more children [had mothers who were employed than had not].

 

(A) had mothers who were employed than had not

 

(B) have had employed mothers than had not

 

(C) had employed mothers than not

 

(D) than not have had mothers who were employed

 

(E) than not had mothers employed

 

解法のテクニック

1 構文<More A than not> V-

V-であるAの方が

V-でないAより多い

従って、(D) or (E)

2 [have O +過去分詞]は?


Gsc2-15 190926thu

 Reports that a carcinogenic substance, ethylene dibromide, [has been found in flour, pancake mixes, and other widely used food products is] being investigated by the Environmental Protection Agency.

 

(A) has been found in flour, pancake mixes, and other widely used food products is

 

(B) has been found in flour, pancake mixes, and other widely used food products are

 

(C) was found in flour, pancake mixes, and other widely used food products is

 

(D) that was found in flour, pancake mixes, and other widely used food products is

 

(E) that has been found in flour, pancake mixes, and other widely used food products are

 

解法のテクニック

1 SV単複の確認は必須。Sは?Vはどれ? (A)(C)(D)disqualify

2 コンマの間は挿入。文法的に成立するのは?

Gsc2-14 190925wed

In twelfth-century Baghdad, Shuhda became a great religious scholar, and [men as well as women had attended her lectures].

 

(A) men as well as women had attended her lectures

 

(B) there were men who attended her lectures as well as women

 

(C) men as well as women attended her lectures

 

(D) her lectures were given to men as well as women

 

(E) her lectures were given to both men and women

 

解法のテクニック

1 tense: hadは大過去(過去形より前のこと)。従って(A) は、時制が矛盾。

2 conciseness: there is(余計な動詞)を使う必然があるか→(B)

3 能動態と受動態、どちらがエレガント?

Gsc2-13 190923mon    

The average human life span is [less than forty years, except in areas where] improvements in health care and preventive medicine have raised life expectancy to past the age of seventy.

 

(A) less than forty years, except in areas where

 

(B) fewer than forty years, excepting in areas where

 

(C) less than forty years, excepting in areas in which

 

(D) fewer than forty years, except for those areas that

 

(E) less than forty years, excepting for those areas in which

 

解法のテクニック

1 fewerは可算名詞に、lessは不加算にかかる。ここでは対象はlife span (不加算)(後ろの数字にまどわされないことがミソ)。従って、(A) (C) (E) が残る。

2 exceptの用法:

 except O

 except for/ in O

 except that/ when

 excepting   xxx

すると。。。。。。?

Gsc2-12 190920fri

The huge painted temples, the canals and cause-ways, the palaces and markets, the orderliness and cleanliness?everything about Tenochtitlan [impressed Cortes so that he compared] it favorably with the great cities of Spain.

 

(A) impressed Cortes so that he compared

 

(B) so impressed Cortes to compare

 

(C) were impressive enough to Cortes so that he compared

 

(D) so impressed Cortes that he compared

 

(E) impressed Cortes so as to compare

 

解法のテクニック

一発切り

so that-  (−の目的で)

文、 so that- (その結果ー)

so A that B     (とてもAなのでBした)

 

で、ここでは?

Gsc2-11 190916mon

Pediatricians [ having observed the practice of both older and younger colleagues contend that older pediatricians are likely to overlook evidence of child abuse and they therefore diagnose ] it less often.

 

(A) having observed the practice of both older and younger colleagues contend that older pediatricians are likely to overlook evidence of child abuse and they therefore diagnose

 

(B) having observed the practice of both older and younger colleagues contend that older pediatricians likely overlook evidence of child abuse and therefore diagnose

 

(C) who have observed the practice of both older and younger colleagues contend that the older pediatrician is likely to overlook evidence of child abuse and they therefore diagnose

 

(D) who have observed the practice of both older and younger colleagues contend that the older pediatrician likely overlooks evidence of child abuse and therefore they diagnose

 

(E) who have observed the practice of both older and younger colleagues contend that the older pediatrician is likely to overlook evidence of child abuse and therefore diagnoses

 

解法のテクニック

1 likelyはトピックになりやすい。

1)be likely to V

2)most/least(程度) likely

3)it is likely that

 

X

1)likely単独

2)would most likely (婉曲wouldとけんか)

3)likelyもどき (何があるかわかるかな?)

 

上記より、(A) (C) (E)が残る。

 

2 あとは指示語に注目すると。。。?

Gsc2-10 190912thu

Many savings and loan institutions are suffering because they are forced to pay at least 10 percent [or more interest to attract deposits and carry many mortgages not earning] 9 percent.

 

(A) or more interest to attract deposits and carry many mortgages not earning

 

(B) or more interest to attract deposits but carry many mortgages that earn less than

 

(C) interest to attract deposits while carrying many mortgages that earn less than

 

(D) interest for attracting deposits while carrying many mortgages not earning

 

(E) interest for attracting deposits but carry many mortgages that earn less than

 


Gsc2-8 190905thu

A computer that operates on beams of [light, not electric currents, might be capable to do] a trillion operations per second.

 

(A) light, not electric currents, might be capable to do

 

(B) light rather than electric currents might be capable of

 

(C) light instead of electric currents may be capable to do

 

(D) light, and not by electric currents, might be capable of

 

(E) light, as opposed to electric currents, may be capable to do

Gsc2-7 190902mon ■

[The ambassador rarely has] great importance in the age of telecommunications; since virtually all policies are made in their own countries, their jobs entail more show than substance.

 

(A) The ambassador rarely has

 

(B) It is rare that an ambassador is of

 

(C) Rare are the ambassadors having

 

(D) It is rare that there is an ambassador who has

 

(E) Ambassadors rarely have

Gsc2-6 one, a week!■ 190826mon ■

High-yield grains require large quantities of fertilizer and pesticides, extensive irrigation systems, and [ever more expensive fuel for pumping] water and running machinery.

 

(A) ever more expensive fuel for pumping

 

(B) ever more expensive fuels that pump

 

(C) more and more expensive fuel pumping

 

(D) fuel, ever more expensive, pumping

 

(E) fuels, ever more expensive, that pump

Gsc2-5 one, a week!

■ 190819mon ■

The proposals for commercial and residential building in the area have been scaled down because of a disagreement between commercial planners [and the regional planning commission over if continued growth will hasten the decline of] neighboring cities.

 

(A) and the regional planning commission over if continued growth will hasten the decline of

 

(B) with the regional planning commission over if continued growth will hasten decline in

 

(C) and the regional planning commission over whether continued growth will hasten the decline of

 

(D) with the regional planning commission over whether continued growth will hasten the declension in

 

(E) and the regional planning commission about continued growth hastening declension in

Gsc2-4 one, a week!■ 190812mon

[Using glow plugs to warm up the cold cylinders], the starting time of diesel engines is reduced from more than one minute to about five seconds, even in very cold weather.

 

(A) Using glow plugs to warm up the cold cylinders

 

(B) With cold cylinders warmed up by the use of glow plugs

 

(C) Warming up the cold cylinders with glow plugs

 

(D) If glow plugs are used to warm up the cold cylinders

 

(E) Glow plugs being used to warm up the cold cylinders

Gsc2-3 one, a week!■ 190805mon ■

Approximately 200 companies in the United States are now using the new technology of gene splicing to make products that [may be able someday to do everything from boosting crop growth to the treatment of] cancer.

 

(A) may be able someday to do everything from boosting crop growth to the treatment of

 

(B) may someday be able to do everything from boosting crop growth to treating

 

(C) someday can perhaps do everything from the boosting of crop growth to treating

 

(D) can, perhaps, someday do everything from the boosting of the growth of crops to treating

 

(E) can someday perhaps do everything from boosting the growth of crops to the treatment of

Gsc2-2 one, a week!

■ 190729mon ■

The glittering wealth of Venice was attributable [not so much to exotic spices as to commonplace salt], a commodity Venetians exchanged in Constantinople for the spices of Asia.

 

(A) not so much to exotic spices as to commonplace salt,

 

(B) not so much to exotic spices but rather it was to commonplace salt,

 

(C) to commonplace salt rather than so much to exotic spices

 

(D) to commonplace salt not so much as to exotic spices,

 

(E) not to exotic spices so much as to commonplace salt, and

Gsc2-1 one, a week!■ 190722mon ■

By the end of the Civil War there were 179,000 Black soldiers in the Union army, and, together with Blacks in the navy, [having accounted for nearly] 10 percent of the Union's armed forces.

 

(A) having accounted for nearly

 

(B) they accounted for nearly

 

(C) it accounted for near

 

(D) accounting for up to nearly

 

(E) they had accounted for near

Gsc1-40 one, a week!■ 190716tue ■

As late as the eighteenth century, the rank of guests at a banquet was gauged as to where they sat relative to an often elaborate saltcellar on the table.

 

(A) as to where they sat relative to

 

(B) as to where they would sit relative with

 

(C) by where they would sit relative with

 

(D) by where they sat in relation to

 

(E) in where they sat in relation to

Gsc1-27■190415mon ■(one, a week!)■ 190708mon

 The Egyptian Coptic church, one of the oldest Christian communities in the world, traces its spiritual heritage to the preaching of St. Mark, and owing to a fourth-century theological dispute they have had little contact with the rest of the world's Christians for more than fifteen hundred years.

 

(A) and owing to a fourth-century theological dispute they have had

 

(B) but because of a fourth-century theological dispute it has had

 

(C) but owing to a fourth-century theological dispute they have had

 

(D) but on account of a fourth-century theological dispute there has been

 

(E) and due to the fact that there was a fourth-century theological dispute there was

 

Gsc1-39 one, a week!■ 190701mon ■

County waste disposal site selection has been a bitter debate between local municipalities, the board of county commissioners, and neighbors of the proposed sites.

 

(A) County waste disposal site selection has been a bitter debate between

 

(B) There has been a bitter debate over county waste disposal site selection by

 

(C) Waste disposal site selection in the county has been a bitter debate between

 

(D) Selection of a site for the disposal of wastes in the county has caused bitter debate among

 

(E) Site selection for waste disposal in the county has been a bitter debate among

 

Gsc1-38 one, a week!■ 190624mon ■

Of all the great non-Western classical music traditions, India is perhaps best known to American audiences.

 

(A) India is perhaps best known to American audiences

 

(B) American audiences perhaps know India the best

 

(C) India's is the one that is perhaps better known to American audiences

 

(D) India's is perhaps the one best known to American audiences

 

(E) that of India is perhaps the one better known to American audiences

Gsc1-37 one, a week!■ 190617mon ■

The pattern of economic crisis in the developing countries is ominously familiar to what happened in the industrial countries in the Great Depression.

 

(A) familiar to what happened

 

(B) similar with the occurrences

 

(C) reminiscent of what happened

 

(D) familiar to the occurrences

 

(E) reminiscent to what happened

Gsc1-36 one, a week!■ 190610mon ■

Heavy and prolonged use of cocaine can lead to psychological dependence, the symptoms of which are similar to narcotics dependence.

 

(A) the symptoms of which are similar to narcotics dependence

 

(B) the symptoms of which are similar to those of dependence on narcotics

 

(C) which in symptoms are similar to those of dependence on narcotics

 

(D) which has the symptoms similar to those of narcotics dependence

 

(E) which has symptoms similar to narcotics dependence

Gsc1-35 one, a week!■ 190603mon

Dr. Shirmer was cited for her pioneering research on the interacting of disease agents with their carriers.

 

(A) the interacting of disease agents with their carriers

 

(B) disease agents' interactions with their carriers

 

(C) the interaction of disease agents and their carriers

 

(D) disease agents, their carriers, and their interaction

 

(E) carriers and their interaction with disease agents

Gsc1-34 one, a week!■ 190527mon ■

Under Sweden's antiquities law, when farmers building a new barn will strike a Viking site, they cannot complete the building until an archaeologist excavates the site at the farmer's expense.

 

(A) when farmers building a new barn will strike a Viking site, they

 

(B) farmers building a new barn and striking a Viking site

 

(C) farmers building a new barn, when they strike a Viking site,

 

(D) should a farmer who is building a new barn have struck a Viking site, they

 

(E) a farmer who strikes a Viking site while building a new barn

Gsc1-33 one, a week!■ 190521tue ■

There seems to be a broad range of international policy issues on which the views of France's Socialist president are more compatible with President Reagan's than were those of his predecessor.

 

(A) the views of France's Socialist president are more compatible with President Reagan's than were those of his predecessor

 

(B) the views of France's Socialist president seem more compatible with those of President Reagan than were those of his predecessor's

 

(C) the views of France's Socialist president seem more compatible with those of President Reagan than his predecessor's

 

(D) France's Socialist president's views are more compatible with President Reagan's than his predecessor's

 

(E) France's Socialist president's views seem more compatible with President Reagan's than those of his predecessor

Gsc1-32 one, a week!■ 190514tue ■

James Weldon Johnson's God's Trombones was a collection of folk sermons in verse finished in 1927, his most important poetic achievement.

 

(A) James Weldon Johnson's God's Trombones was a collection of folk sermons in verse finished in 1927, his most important poetic achievement.

 

(B) In 1927 James Weldon Johnson finished God's Trombones, a collection of folk sermons in verse that was his most important poetic achievement.

 

(C) God's Trombones by James Weldon Johnson was finished in 1927, a collection of folk sermons in verse and his most important poetic achievement.

 

(D) James Weldon Johnson finished God's Trombones in 1927, which was a collection of folk sermons in verse and his most important poetic achievement.

 

(E) James Weldon Johnson's God's Trombones was a collection of folk sermons in verse and his most important poetic achievement, which was finished in 1927.

Gsc1-31 one, a week!■ 190506mon

Both Muslims and Karaites face toward a holy city while praying, but unlike the Muslims that turn toward Mecca, the Karaites turn toward Jerusalem.

 

(A) Both Muslims and Karaites face toward a holy city while praying, but unlike the Muslims that turn

 

(B) Muslims and Karaites face toward a holy city while praying, but unlike the Muslims turning

 

(C) Like Muslims, Karaites face toward a holy city while praying, but unlike them turning

 

(D) Similar to Muslims, Karaites face toward a holy city while praying too, and whereas the Muslims turn

 

(E) Like Muslims, Karaites face toward a holy city while praying, but whereas the Muslims turn

Gsc1-30■ 190429mon ■(one, a week!)

 Although it is the parent who is at fault in neglect and abuse cases, it is the children that are shipped off either to an institution or turned into an orphan, and that is left to wander from one foster home to the next.

 

(A) children that are shipped off either to an institution or turned into an orphan, and that is left to wander from one foster home to the next

 

(B) children that are either shipped off to an institution or turned into orphans and left to wander from one foster home to the other

 

(C) children who may be either shipped off to an institution or turned into orphans, and that are left to wander from one foster home to the next

 

(D) child who is either shipped off to an institution or turned into an orphan, left to wander from one foster home to another

 

(E) child who may either be shipped off to an institution or turned into an orphan, left wandering from one foster home to another

Gsc1-28■ 190422mon(one, a week!)

 According to Einstein's theory of relativity, light rays are deflected by the gravity of a nearby massive body, an observable effect as a star appears to shift position when its light passes near the Sun.

 

(A) an observable effect as a star appears to shift position when

 

(B) an effect observed as the appearance of a shift in the position of a star while

 

(C) an effect that can be observed when a star appears to shift position as

 

(D) which can be observed when a star appears to shift its position during the time

 

(E) observable when a star appears to undergo a shift in position while

Gsc1-27■190415mon ■(one, a week!)

 The Egyptian Coptic church, one of the oldest Christian communities in the world, traces its spiritual heritage to the preaching of St. Mark, and owing to a fourth-century theological dispute they have had little contact with the rest of the world's Christians for more than fifteen hundred years.

 

(A) and owing to a fourth-century theological dispute they have had

 

(B) but because of a fourth-century theological dispute it has had

 

(C) but owing to a fourth-century theological dispute they have had

 

(D) but on account of a fourth-century theological dispute there has been

 

(E) and due to the fact that there was a fourth-century theological dispute there was

Gsc1-26■ 190408mon(one, a week!)

The controversy over if women are to register for the draft was rekindled by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

 

(A) over if women are to register

 

(B) over whether women should register

 

(C) about if women should register

 

(D) about whether women will register

 

(E) about women being registered

Gsc1-25■ 190401aprilfools(one, a week!)

When high interest rates cause the value of the United States dollar to rise relative to other countries, it makes the exports of other countries become cheaper to buy in the United States and United States exports become more expensive in other countries.

 

(A) countries, it makes the exports of other countries become

 

(B) countries, both the exports of other countries become

 

(C) currencies, it makes the exports of other countries

 

(D) currencies, it both makes the exports of other countries become

 

(E) currencies, the exports of other countries become

Gsc1-24■ 190325mon ■(one, a week!)

It was the demand for labor in the burgeoning industries of the United States that obliged its leaders, sometimes grudgingly, to open the ports of the country to the people of Europe.

 

(A) that obliged its leaders, sometimes grudgingly, to open

 

(B) obliging its leaders, grudgingly at times, that they open

 

(C) that had obliged its leaders, sometimes grudgingly, who opened

 

(D) having obliged its leaders, at times grudgingly, to open

 

(E) that has obliged its leaders, sometimes grudgingly, opening

Gsc1-21■190318mon■

The notion of multiple personalities was always more readily accepted in popular books and movies than psychiatrists and other doctors did.

 

(A) than psychiatrists and other doctors did

 

(B) than it was by psychiatrists and other doctors

 

(C) as did psychiatrists and other doctors

 

(D) as it was by psychiatrists and other doctors

 

(E) than do psychiatrists and other doctors

Gsc1-20 ■ 190312tue(one, a week!)

 [Covered with low shrubs, the quality of the land along the seashore is sandy and unsuitable for agricultural use].

 

(A) Covered with low shrubs, the quality of the land along the seashore is sandy and unsuitable for agricultural use.

 

(B) Covered with low shrubs, the land along the seashore is sandy and unsuitable for agriculture.

 

(C) The land along the seashore, covered with low shrubs, is sandy and has a quality unsuitable for agricultural use.

 

(D) The land along the seashore is covered with low shrubs, sandy, and is unsuitable for agriculture.

 

(E) The quality of the land along the seashore, covered with low shrubs, is sandy and unsuitable for agricultural use.

Gsc1-19■ 181231mon ■(one, a week!)

As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, [are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against] any arctic weather.

 

(A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against

 

(B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to

 

(C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to

 

(D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against

 

(E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to

 

Gsc1-18■ 181203mon ■(one, a week!)

An archaeological excavation at [what might have been a workshop where statues were reproduced yielded 1,532 fragments of human figures, including] 7 intact statues.

 

(A) what might have been a workshop where statues were reproduced yielded 1,532 fragments of human figures, including

 

(B) what might have been a workshop where statues were reproduced yielded l,532 fragments of human figures and

 

(C) the site of a possible workshop where statues were reproduced yielded 1,532 fragments of human figures and

 

(D) the site of a possible workshop where statues were reproduced yielded 1,532 fragments of human figures, including

 

(E) the site of a possible workshop where statues might have been reproduced yielded 1,532 fragments of human figures, including

 

Gsc1-17■ 181126mon ■(one, a week!)

Compared with the nuclear arsenal of the United States, [the Soviet Union has fewer but considerably larger intercontinental warheads at its disposal].

 

(A) the Soviet Union has fewer but considerably larger intercontinental warheads at its disposal

 

(B) the Soviet Union has at its disposal less numerous but considerably larger intercontinental warheads

 

(C) the intercontinental warheads at the Soviet Union's disposal are less numerous but considerably larger

 

(D) the Soviet Union's less numerous but considerably larger intercontinental warheads are at its disposal

 

(E) there are less numerous but considerably larger intercontinental warheads at the Soviet Union's disposal

Gsc1-16■ 181121wed ■(one, a week!)

On a Chippewa reservation in Wisconsin, young members of the tribe are using computers [for learning their ancient language that was nearly forgotten].

 

(A) for learning their ancient language that was nearly forgotten

 

(B) for learning their ancient language that they nearly forgot

 

(C) to learn their ancient-language, which they nearly forgot

 

(D) to learn their ancient and nearly forgotten language

 

(E) to learn their language that was ancient and nearly forgotten

Gsc1-15 ■ 181112mon(one, a week!)

A summary of both the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the victimization reports for the last decade [show that while the number of] police reports of serious crime has risen steadily, the number of victims of crime remains about the same.

 

(A) show that while the number of

 

(B) show while

 

(C) shows that while

 

(D) shows while the number of

 

(E) shows that while the number of

Gsc1-14 181105mon (one, a week!)

The tissues of the human body are constantly moistened by a briny solution thought [to be of about the same salinity as the primordial sea from which] life emerged.

 

(A) to be of about the same salinity as the primordial sea from which

 

(B) of as about the same salinity like the primordial sea out of which

 

(C) to be about the same salinity as the primordial sea from where

 

(D) of as about the same salinity as the primordial sea from where

 

(E) to be of about the same salinity like the primordial sea from which

Gsc1-13■181029mon■(one, a week!)

[Etruscan women did not take their husband's name, as Roman women did], but retained her own through life.

 

(A) Etruscan women did not take their husband's name, as Roman women did

 

(B) Etruscan women did not take their husbands' names, as Roman women did

 

(C) Etruscan women did not take a husband's name, as did a Roman woman

 

(D) Unlike a Roman woman, an Etruscan woman did not take her husband's name

 

(E) Unlike Roman women, Etruscan women did not take their husbands' names

Gsc1-11■181022mon■(one, a week!)

The newspaper story accurately recounted the history of the colonial [mansion, that it contained thirteen rooms, and that it had a reputation for being a haunted house].

 

(A) mansion, that it contained thirteen rooms, and that it had a reputation for being a haunted house

 

(B) mansion, that it contained thirteen rooms, and that it had a reputation of being haunted

 

(C) mansion, that the mansion contained thirteen rooms, and said that it had a reputation for being haunted

 

(D) mansion, said that it contained thirteen rooms and had a reputation for being a haunted house

 

(E) mansion and said that the mansion contained thirteen rooms and had the reputation of being haunted


Gsc1-10■181015mon■(one, a week!)

[ Although the Arabs in Israel are allowed to vote in Israeli elections, only about ten percent do so ].

 

(A) Although the Arabs in Israel are allowed to vote in Israeli elections, only about ten percent do so.

 

(B) Although it is allowed, only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections.

 

(C) Even though they are allowed to do it, only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections.

 

(D) Only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections, despite being allowed to.

 

(E) Only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections, in spite of their being allowed to do so.

 

Gsc1-08■181008mon(one, a week!)

Since the 1940's the farms and ranches of the Great Plains have been supplied with water from the Ogallala aquifer; this underground reservoir contained an estimated quadrillion gallons of water, [which equal Lake Huron], but now reserves are becoming depleted.

 

(A) which equal Lake Huron

 

(B) which equal Lake Huron's

 

(C) equal to Lake Huron's

 

(D) the equivalent of Lake Huron's

 

(E) the equivalent of Lake Huron

Gsc1-07■181002tue■(one, a week!)

When doctors attempt to diagnose an illness, they look for ways in which the patient's symptoms resemble those of one disease and are different than those of another.

 

(A) and are different than those of another

 

(B) and differs from others

 

(C) and differ from those of others

 

(D) but are different than that of the other

 

(E) but are different from those of the others

Gsc1-06(one, a week!)■180926wed■

The price of rice, which was fourteen dollars a hundredweight in 1981, will plunge, so it is expected, to a mere seven or eight dollars this year.

 

(A) will plunge, so it is expected, to a mere

 

(B) will plunge, so the expectation is, to merely

 

(C) is to plunge, as expected, to merely

 

(D) is to plunge, as is expected, to a mere

 

(E) is expected to plunge to a mere

Gsc1-05 180918tue  (one, a week!)

Because timbers of ships were once used to make local houses, [you are able to still smell the tar of an old ship when one enters] a building along an estuary.

 

(A) you are able to still smell the tar of an old ship when one enters

 

(B) you can still smell the tar of an old ship when you enter

 

(C) one can still smell the tar of an old ship when you enter

 

(D) a person can still smell the tar of an old ship when they enter

 

(E) people are able to still smell the tar of an old ship when they are entering

Gsc1-04 180911tue  (one, a week!)

[The economic problem Puerto Rico has is, properly characterized, a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it only was] aggravated when the massive influx of capital that took place under Operation Bootstrap resulted in a notable decline in the demand for labor.

 

(A) The economic problem Puerto Rico has is, properly characterized, a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it only was

 

(B) Properly characterized, the economic problem Peen Rico has is a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it only was

 

(C) The economic problem of Puerto Rico is properly characterized not as overpopulation but as a surplus of labor, which was only

 

(D) The economic problem of Puerto Rico is, properly characterized, a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, which only was

 

(E) Puerto Rico has, properly characterized, the economic problem of a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it was only

Gsc1-03 180904tue (one, a week!)

Mary Allenbee's lawyer decided that the names of those who received her large political contributions not to be revealed to the congressional investigators.

 

(A) the names of those who received her large political contributions not to be revealed

(B) the names of the recipients of her large political contributions would not be revealed

(C) the names of those who had received her large political contributions was not to be revealed

(D) there would be no revelation of the names of those recipients of her large political contributions

(E) the names of those who had received her large political contributions was not going to be revealed

Gsc1-02 180624mon

The papers in the National Archives recounting the experiences of some 200,000 Black men who joined the Union forces during the Civil War have been prepared [to be published by] the historian Ira Berlin.

 

(A) to be published by

(B) for publication by

(C) for publishing by

(D) as the publication of

(E) for the publication by
......................正解と解法のテクニック

Gsc1-01 180618

Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, [has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up] to 1980.

 

(A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up

(B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970 up

(C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970

(D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970

(E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970

 問題 GMATscn06 180611mon

The architectural problem of how to enclose and articulate interior space becomes  more and more critical as the size of the space will increase.

(A) more and more critical as the size of the space will increase

(B) increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger

(C) ever more critical as the size of the space increases

(D) one that is increasingly critical as there is an increase in

the size of the space

(E) more critical with the size of the space getting larger

■ 正解と解法のテクニック


 問題 GMATscn05 180606

 If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would not generate a blast, shock, or heat, but rather an intense electromagnetic pulse disrupting, like a lightning bolt, all unshielded electric lines and electronic equipment.

(A) If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would not generate a blast, shock, or heat, but rather

(B) If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would generate not a blast, shock, nor heat, but

(C) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would generate no blast, shock, or heat, but rather

(D) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would not generate a blast, shock, or heat, but rather

(E) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would not generate a blast, shock, nor heat, but


■ 正解と解法のテクニック


問題 GMATscn04 180531

Income tax indexing is intended to eliminate constantly increasing taxes that result because of inflation pushing individuals into higher tax brackets.

(A) constantly increasing taxes that result because of inflation pushing individuals

(B) constant tax increase because inflation pushes individuals

(C) constantly increasing taxes because individuals are pushed by inflation

(D) constant tax increase that results as inflation pushes individuals

(E) constant tax increase as a result of individuals being pushed by inflation

■ 正解と解法のテクニック


問題 GMATscn03 180518

The pattern of economic crisis in the developing countries is ominously familiar to the occurrences in the industrial countries in the Great Depression.

(A) familiar to the occurrences

(B) reminiscent of what happened

(C) familiar to what happened

(D) similar with the occurrences

(E) reminiscent to what happened


 正解と解法のテクニック


問題 
GMATscn01 180511

Einstein's theory of relativity holds that the gravity of a massive body deflects nearby light rays, observable when a star appears to undergo a shift in position while its light passes near the Sun.

(A) observable when a star appears to undergo a shift in position while

(B) which can be observed when a star appears to shift its position during the time

(C) an observable effect as a star appears to shift position when

(D) an effect observed as the appearance of a shift in the position of a star while

(E) an effect that can be observed when a star appears to shift position as



正解と解法のテクニック


  回答( A, B, C, D, E)、案、ご相談・質問は、ここに!
 
本気にやりたい方は→
GMAT 7 Week's Wonder

お問合せ HP TOP