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GMAT sentence correction





GMAT sc 正解と解法のテクニック

参考:The Elements of Style (解法に必要なほぼすべての鍵は、この1918年発行の小冊子にあります。大切なのは、その適用力です)


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GMAT 7 Week's Wonder


Gsc8-38 220504wed

 [In London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters], Aphra Behn, by 1687, had had 17 of her plays staged in as many years.

 

(A) In London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters,

 

(B) In a London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters,

 

(C) Even though London's playwrights only were afforded two theaters

 

(D) Only two theaters were afforded by London to its playwrights, and

 

(E) Two theaters only were afforded by London for its playwrights, and

 

解法のテクニック

Trick: 固有名詞London

Conciseness/ Clarity


trick!

1 限定that矛盾!(固有名詞London)

2 受動xx

 

a Mr. Allan called you

解答

[A] 1

[B]  

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 2

 


Gsc8-38 220504wed

 [In London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters], Aphra Behn, by 1687, had had 17 of her plays staged in as many years.

 

(A) In London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters,

 

(B) In a London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters,

 

(C) Even though London's playwrights only were afforded two theaters

 

(D) Only two theaters were afforded by London to its playwrights, and

 

(E) Two theaters only were afforded by London for its playwrights, and

 

解法のテクニック

Trick: 固有名詞London

Conciseness/ Clarity

Gsc8-39 220508sun

Used primarily in the past to store, retrieve, and manipulate data, [computers at the Federal Bureau of Investigation are now being asked to make judgments and for suggesting] courses of action for agents to pursue.

 

(A) computers at the Federal Bureau of Investigation are now being asked to make judgments and for suggesting

 

(B) computers at the Federal Bureau of Investigation are now being asked to make judgments and suggest

 

(C) the Federal Bureau of Investigation is now asking computers to make judgments and for suggesting

 

(D) the Federal Bureau of Investigation is now asking that computers make judgments and suggest

 

(E) the Federal Bureau of Investigation is now asking computers for judgments and suggestions for

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

Parallelism

1 dm

2 p(and前後)

解答

[A] 2

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 1

 



Gsc8-38 220504wed

 [In London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters], Aphra Behn, by 1687, had had 17 of her plays staged in as many years.

 

(A) In London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters,

 

(B) In a London that afforded its playwrights only two theaters,

 

(C) Even though London's playwrights only were afforded two theaters

 

(D) Only two theaters were afforded by London to its playwrights, and

 

(E) Two theaters only were afforded by London for its playwrights, and

 

解法のテクニック

Trick: 固有名詞London

Conciseness/ Clarity

trick!

1 限定that矛盾!(固有名詞London)

2 受動xx

 

a Mr. Allan called you

解答

[A] 1

[B]  

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 2

 




Gsc8-37 220501sun

 Many companies in the pollution-control industry, which [until a few years ago has prospered on account of a national concern for environmental controls, has] recently experienced sharp drops in sales and profits.

 

(A) until a few years ago has prospered on account of a national concern for environmental controls, has

 

(B) up until a few years ago, when prospering on account of a national concern for environmental controls, have

 

(C) until a few years ago was prospering because of a national concern for environmental controls, have

 

(D) up until a few years ago have prospered because of a national concern for environmental controls, has

 

(E) until a few years ago had prospered because of a national concern for environmental controls, has

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement: Singular/ Plural

Conciseness

1 s/p

2 cons(up)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc8-36 220427wed

American Indians point out that they are not one body: they speak hundreds of different languages, and they are probably more different [from one another than people who live in various European capitals].

 

(A) from one another than people who live in various European capitals

 

(B) from one another than are people who live in the various capitals of Europe

 

(C) each from the others than people living in various European capitals

 

(D) than people who live in various capitals of Europe from each other

 

(E) from each other as people living in the various capitals of Europe

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism ( more )

Diction ( different )

1 dic(different from)

2 dic(one anotherお互い3者以上)

3 more as xx

4 比較(S-N-S'+V)

 

Jane ate more bananas than apples.

Jane ate more bananas than Pam did

 

解答

[A] 4

[B]

[C] 12

[D] 1

[E] 23

 



Gsc8-35 220425sun

For over forty years Carleen Maley Hutchins has painstakingly analyzed the acoustical secrets of the best violins and [builds instruments for testing] her findings.

 

(A) builds instruments for testing

 

(B) has built instruments as tests for

 

(C) built instruments to test

 

(D) will build instruments that test

 

(E) would build instruments in testing

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism ( and)

Conciseness

1 p(and前後)

2 cons

 

解答

[A] 1

[B]  2

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 1

 



Gsc8-33 220417sun

 [Eight years after they were saved from bankruptcy a sudden turnaround, the Senay Corporation is] again encountering sluggish sales, mounting competition, and deep losses.

 

(A) Eight years after they were saved from bankruptcy by a sudden turnaround, the Senay Corporation is

 

(B) Eight years before the Senay Corporation was saved from bankruptcy by a sudden turnaround, now they are

 

(C) After a sudden turnaround had saved them from bankruptcy eight years before, the Senay Corporation is

 

(D) Eight years after a sudden turnaround saved it from bankruptcy, the Senay Corporation is

 

(E) After the Senay Corporation had been saved from bankruptcy eight years before by a sudden turnaround, it is

 

解法のテクニック

Reference: they

Grammar

Tense

1 ref(団体they xx)

2 gram(接続詞なし/重複)

3 tense(had)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 13

[D]

[E] 23



Gsc8-32 220413wed

In the 1890's workers were drawn to Miami from the Bahamas by the promise [of the resort hotels that would have work for them].

 

(A) of the resort hotels that would have work for them

 

(B) of there being work for them in the resort hotels

 

(C) of work in the resort hotels

 

(D) for working in the resort hotels

 

(E) to have work in the resort hotels

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: promise

dic(promise of〜の希望、きざし、期待、可能性)

 

 

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc8-31 220410sun

William Sydney Porter, who began writing while he was in prison for embezzlement, [was seeking anonymity when he chose] the pseudonym O. Henry.

 

(A) was seeking anonymity when he chose

 

(B) was seeking that he might be anonymous when he chose

 

(C) was seeking for anonymity and therefore chose

 

(D) sought anonymity in the choosing of

 

(E) sought to be anonymous in that he chose

 

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness

Clarity

1 cons

2 cl(内容)

original meaning

cf seek(求める、ほしがる)seek for(探し求める、探索行為)

when=と、その時、

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc8-20 22046wed

 A natural response of communities devastated by earthquake or flood is to rebuild on the same site, [overlooking the possibility that the forces that caused it could be repeated].

 

(A) overlooking the possibility that the forces that caused it could be repeated

 

(B) overlooking the possibility that the forces causing it could be repeated

 

(C) overlooking that the forces that caused the disaster could also cause another one

 

(D) without considering that the forces causing the disaster could be repeated

 

(E) without considering that the forces that caused the disaster could also cause another such disaster

 

解法のテクニック

Reference: it

Clarity

1 あいまいit

2 cl(論点はforceよりdisaster)

 

cf red(possible/could)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc8-19 220403wed

Unlike their close cousins the blue jays, which demonstrate raucous, aggressive, selfish, and very individualistic habits,[ the behavior of the Mexican jay has been found to be] quiet, cooperative, communal, and even altruistic.

 

(A) the behavior of the Mexican jay has been found to be

 

(B) the Mexican jay's behavior has been found

 

(C) it has been found that Mexican jays are

 

(D) Mexican jays have been found to be

 

(E) the Mexican jay has been found

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement

Diction/ Parallelism ( unlike )

1 unlike

2 s/p

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E]2




Gsc8-18 220330wed

 A "standard candle" is a light source whose intrinsic luminosity is [so well known that the extent to which its brightness has been dimmed by distance can] be used as an astronomical yardstick.

 

(A) so well known that the extent to which its brightness has been dimmed by distance can

 

(B) so well known that the extent of its brightness that is dimmed by distance can

 

(C) sufficiently well known so that the extent that distance has dimmed its brightness can

 

(D) sufficiently well known for the extent of its brightness that has been dimmed by distance to

 

(E) sufficiently well known for the extent that distance has dimmed its brightness to

 

解法のテクニック

Diction ( so-that)

Diction ( extent)

1 so-that

2 the extent

to which節/ of句→節or句

 

解答

[A]  

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E]1

 



Gsc8-17   220327sun

 [When deprived of carbohydrates, its preferred fuel, the body is forced to burn fats and protein for energy, thus causing] the formation of fatigue inducing toxins.

 

(A) When deprived of carbohydrates, its preferred fuel, the body is forced to burn fats and protein for energy, thus causing

 

(B) When deprived of carbohydrates, which are the body's preferred fuel, it is thus forced to burn fats and protein for energy, which causes

 

(C) When deprived of its preferred fuel, which are carbohydrates, the body is forced to burn fats and protein for energy, and thus causes

 

(D) The body is forced to burn fats and protein for energy when deprived of carbohydrates, its preferred fuel, which thus causes

 

(E) The body's preferred fuel is carbohydrates, and when deprived of them it is thus forced to burn fats and protein for energy, causing

 

解法のテクニック

Reference

1 間違いit

2 間違いwhich

 

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]2

[E]1



Gsc8-16 220323wed

Born Janet Miriam Taylor Caldwell near Manchester, England, on September 7, 1900, [her family moved to the United States when the future author was six].

 

(A) her family moved to the United States when the future author was six

 

(B) her family then moved, when the future author was six, to the United States

 

(C) her family, when the future author was six, then moved to the United States

 

(D) when the future author was age six, her family moved to the United States

 

(E) the future author moved with her family to the United States at age six

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

★ DM

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc8-15 220320sun

The Parthenon is larger than [usual] for a Doric temple, with eight columns on the short sides and

seventeen on the long ones rather than the typical six and thirteen.

 

(A) usual

 

(B) is usual

 

(C) has been usual

 

(D) one usually is

 

(E) it is usual

 

解法のテクニック

Diction : usual

★ 比較dic

(than is usual/common)

 

Jane ate more than usual

 

Jane ate more than is usual for a girl her age.

 

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc8-13 220313sun

Black History Month is observed in February, the month of Lincoln's birthday and the generally accepted month of Frederick Douglass' birth, [since they were each] primary figures in the abolition of slavery.

 

(A) since they were each

 

(B) who were both

 

(C) because both men were

 

(D) both of whom were

 

(E) each of whom was one of the

 

解法のテクニック

Reference

★ ref(所有格指示不可)

 

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc8-12 220309wed

 A pattern of accidents, of personnel problems, and of low performance ratings for mechanical systems [have marked the servicing and maintaining] of the new power plant.

 

(A) have marked the servicing and maintaining

 

(B) have marked the servicing and maintenance

 

(C) have marked the service and maintenance

 

(D) has marked the service and maintaining

 

(E) has marked the servicing and maintenance

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement

1 s/p

2 内容(service of A=Aの行うservice)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]




Gsc8-11   220306sun

Some surveys on the use of graphics in business presentations indicate that proposals incorporating graphics stand [a twenty percent better chance of being approved than proposals] without graphics.

 

(A) a twenty percent better chance of being approved than proposals

 

(B) a twenty percent better chance of approval in comparison with those

 

(C) a likelihood they will be approved twenty percent greater than those

 

(D) a twenty percent greater likelihood of approval as compared to proposals

 

(E) twenty percent more likelihood of being approved than do those

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison

★比較(compare/likelihood△)

cf being正解例

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]




Gsc8-10 220302wed

 [Sharply fewer ducks are expected to migrate south this fall and may be] the lowest figure on record according to United States and Canadian wildlife experts.

 

(A) Sharply fewer ducks are expected to migrate south this fall and may be

 

(B) It is expected that sharply fewer ducks will migrate south this fall and will perhaps be

 

(C) The ducks expected to migrate south this fall will be sharply reduced, perhaps to

 

(D) The number of ducks that will migrate south this fall is expected to drop sharply, perhaps to

 

(E) A sharp drop is expected in the number of ducks that will migrate south this fall, which may be

 

解法のテクニック

Diction

Redundancy

1 sharply-

increase/decrease/rise/drop

(sharp x)

2 number欠

3 あいまいwhich

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 13

 



Gsc8-8 220223wed

A report by the American Medical Association indicates that a surge in the number of malpractice suits began about ten years ago and [efforts to contain it since then had been only partially successful].

 

(A) efforts to contain it since then had been only partially successful

 

(B) efforts since then to contain it were only successful in part

 

(c) that efforts since then to contain it have been only partially successful

 

(D) that efforts to contain it since then only have been partially successful

 

(E) that efforts to contain it since then were only successful in part

 

解法のテクニック

Tense

Misplaced Modifier

1 since-have

2 onlyの位置

(only partially)

 

that- and that-

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 12

[C]

[D] 2

[E] 12

 


Gsc8-7 220220sun

 A former director of the Central Intelligence Agency has said that the surveillance capabilities of United States satellites would enable a skilled photographic interpreter to distinguish [between Guernsey and Hereford cows grazing] in a meadow.

 

(A) between Guernsey and Hereford cows grazing

 

(B) between Guernseys and Hereford cows that graze

 

(C) among Guernseys and Hereford cows that are grazing

 

(D) among Guernsey and Hereford cows as they graze

 

(E) Guernseys from Hereford cows grazing

 

解法のテクニック

Diction (between vs among)

Parallelism

1 between-2

   among-3~

2 p

解答

[A]

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 2

 



Gsc8-6 220216wed

 People concerned about telltale signs of age on the face should know that cigarette smoking seems to have two damaging effects: [it not only hastens wrinkling of the skin, and it also apparently interferes] with the healing process after a face lift.

 

(A) it not only hastens wrinkling of the skin, and it also apparently interferes

 

(B) it not only hastens the wrinkling of the skin, but it also appears that it interferes

 

(C) not only does it hasten the wrinkling of the skin as it also apparently interferes

 

(D) not only does it hasten the wrinkling of the skin, but it also appears to interfere

 

(E) not only is wrinkling of the skin hastened, but it appears to interfere

 

解法のテクニック

Diction (not only-)

Clarity

1 not only-but (also)

2 あいまいit

3 it

解答

[A]  1

[B] 3

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 2

 



Gsc8-4  220209wed

[The last years of Booker T. Washington, regarded to be the most influential Black leader of his time, were devoted] to building a political power base that extended far beyond the confines of the Tuskegee Institute.

 

(A) The last years of Booker T. Washington, regarded to be the most influential Black leader of his time, were devoted

 

(B) Regarded to be the most influential Black leader of his time, Booker T. Washington's last years were devoted

 

(C) Booker T. Washington, being regarded the most influential Black leader of his time, devoted his last years

 

(D) Being regarded as the most influential Black leader of his time, Booker T. Washington had devoted his last years

 

(E) Booker T. Washington, regarded as the most influential Black leader of his time, devoted his last years

 

解法のテクニック

Diction

Conciseness

1 regard as

2 cons(being)

 

解答

[A] 1

[B]  1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 


Gsc8-3 220206sun

Arguments against using children as courtroom witnesses are often predicated on the unproved assumption that children's memories are more malleable and less trustworthy than [adults].

 

(A) adults

 

(B) that of an adult

 

(C) an adult is

 

(D) those of adults

 

(E) adults are

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism

★ p(比較対象P)

cf that/ those of

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc8-2 220202wed

Until recently, athletes who had received remuneration for any activity [that has a link to their athletic prowess is] barred from the Olympics.

 

(A) that has a link to their athletic prowess is

 

(B) with links to their athletic prowess has been

 

(C) linked to their athletic prowess was

 

(D) with a link to their athletic prowess is to be

 

(E) linked to their athletic prowess were

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement

s/p

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 


Gsc8-1 220130sun

Many American cities have been unsuccessful in their efforts [to move mental patients out of mammoth asylums and that treat] them in their local communities.

 

(A) to move mental patients out of mammoth asylums and that treat

 

(B) to move mental patients out of mammoth asylums and treat

 

(C) to move mental patients out-of mammoth asylums for treating

 

(D) which move mental patients out of mammoth asylums to treat

 

(E) moving mental patients out of mammoth asylums and that treat

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism

p

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 


Gsc7-39 220123sun

India is a country with at least fifty major regional languages, [of whom fourteen have official recognition].

 

(A) of whom fourteen have official recognition

 

(B) fourteen that have official recognition

 

(C) fourteen of which are officially recognized

 

(D) fourteen that are officially recognized

 

(E) among whom fourteen have official recognition

 

解法のテクニック

Diction

★ dic(x of which)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc7-37 220116sun

The unskilled workers at the Allenby plant realized that their hourly rate of $4.11 to $4.75 was better than [many nearby factory wages].

 

(A) many nearby factory wages

 

(B) many wages in nearby factories

 

(C) what are offered by many nearby .

 

(D) it is in many nearby factories

 

(E) that offered by many nearby factories

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism

Tense

1 p/comp(that)

2 s/p

3 tense

what is不正解例

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 23

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc7-36 220112wed

In the traditional Japanese household, most clothing could be packed [flatly, and so it was not necessary to have elaborate closet facilities].

 

(A) flatly, and so it was not necessary to have elaborate closet facilities

 

(B) flat, and so elaborate closet facilities were unnecessary

 

(C) flatly, and so there was no necessity for elaborate closet facilities

 

(D) flat, there being no necessity for elaborate closet facilities

 

(E) flatly, as no elaborate closet facilities were necessary

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness

Clarity

1 cons(there)

2 cons(there being)

3 cl(o mean/ so=xx as)

4 cons(not→no/同形容詞修飾)

5 cl(original mean→flat=s/flatly=v)

 

解答

[A] 45

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E] 3



Gsc7-35 220109sun

By installing special electric pumps, farmers' houses could be heated by the warmth from cows' milk, according to one agricultural engineer.

 

(A) farmers' houses could be heated by the warmth from cows' milk, according to one agricultural engineer

 

(B) the warmth from cows' milk could be used by farmers to heat their houses, according to one agricultural engineer

 

(C) one agricultural engineer reports that farmers could use the warmth from cows' milk to heat their houses

 

(D) farmers, according to one agricultural engineer, could use the warmth from cows' milk to heat their houses

 

(E) one agricultural engineer reports that farmers' houses could be heated by the warmth from cows' milk

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism

Clarity

1 p(by ing)

2 cl(受動→能動)

 

解答

[A] 1

[B]  1

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc7-34 220105wed

Originally published in 1950, Some Tame Gazelle was Barbara Pym's first novel, but it [does not read like an apprentice work].

 

(A) does not read like an apprentice work

 

(B) seems not to read as an apprentice work

 

(C) does not seem to read as an apprentice work would

 

(D) does not read like an apprentice work does

 

(E) reads unlike an apprentice work

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism/ Diction

Clarity/ Conciseness

trick(not正解例)cf 16

1 p/dic/gram(like節 xx)

2 cl(o mean/ as句= xx like句)

3 cl(o mean/seem?)

4 cons(as節→like句)

5 cl(o mean/読めない=消極・読める=積極)

解答

[A]

[B] 23

[C] 34

[D] 1

[E] 5



Gsc7-33 220102sun

The medieval scholar made almost no attempt to investigate the anatomy of plants, their mechanisms of growth, [nor the ways where each was related to the other].

 

(A) nor the ways where each was related to the other

 

(B) nor how each was related to some other

 

(C) or the way where one is related to the next

 

(D) or the ways in which they are related to one another

 

(E) or the ways that each related to some other

 

解法のテクニック

Reference/ Misplaced Modifier

Parallelism/ Diction

1 p/dic(no-or/ nor xx)

2 ref/mm(way where xx)

3 ref/mm(関副that xx)

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 3



Gsc7-32 211226sun

To ensure consistently high quality in its merchandise, the chain of retail stores became involved in every aspect of [their suppliers' operations, dictating not only the number of stitches and the width of the hem in every garment as well as] the profit margins of those suppliers.

 

(A) their suppliers' operations, dictating not only the number of stitches and the width of the hem in every garment as well as

 

(B) its suppliers' operations, dictating not only the number of stitches and the width of the hem in every garment as well as

 

(C) their suppliers' operations, dictating not only the number of stitches and the width of the hem in every garment but also

 

(D) its suppliers' operations, dictating not only the number of stitches and the width of the hem in every garment but also

 

(E) their suppliers' operations, dictating the number of stitches, the width of the hem in every garment, and

 

解法のテクニック

Reference

Diction

1 ref/s/p(sn of plだまし)2 p(not only)

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 1



Gsc7-31 211222wed

In the most common procedure for harvesting forage crops such as alfalfa, as much as 20 percent of the leaf and small-stem material, [which is the most nutritious of all the parts of the plant, shattered and fell] to the ground.

 

(A) which is the most nutritious of all the parts of the plant, shattered and fell

 

(B) the most nutritious of all parts of the plant, shatter and fall

 

(C) the parts of the plant which were most nutritious, will shatter and fall

 

(D) the most nutritious parts of the plant, shatters and falls

 

(E) parts of the plant which are the most nutritious, have shattered and fallen

 

解法のテクニック

Singular/ Plural

Conciseness

Tense

1 s/p(sv  andだまし)

2 cons(it is系which is)

3 tense

 

解答

[A] 23

[B] 1

[C] 23

[D]

[E] 1



Gsc7-30 211219sun

For many people, household labor remains demanding [even if able to afford household appliances their grandparents would find a miracle].

 

(A) even if able to afford household appliances their grandparents would find a miracle

 

(B) despite being able to afford household appliances their grandparents would find a miracle

 

(C) even if they can afford household appliances their grandparents would have found miraculous

 

(D) although they could afford household appliances their grandparents would find miraculous

 

(E) even if they are able to afford household appliances which would have been a miracle to their grandparents

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

able

1 dm

2 dic(despite ing xx)

3 tense(if 系、would have)

4 cons(able-can)

解答

[A] 14

[B] 24

[C]

[D] 3

[E] 4

 



Gsc7-29 211215wed

In the United States, trade unions encountered far more intense opposition [against their struggle for social legitimacy than] the organized labor movements of most other democratic nations.

 

(A) against their struggle for social legitimacy than

 

(B) in their struggle for social legitimacy than did

 

(C) against their struggle for social legitimacy as

 

(D) in their struggle for social legitimacy as did

 

(E) when they struggled for social legitimacy than has

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison/ Grammar

comp

1 comp(more/as)

2 comp(v-v)

3 comp(s/n vs'との比較にV)

解答

[A] 3

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E]2



Gsc7-28 211212sun

Some of the tenth-century stave churches of Norway are still [standing, demonstrating that with sound design and maintenance, wooden buildings can last indefinitely].

 

(A) standing, demonstrating that with sound design and maintenance, wooden buildings can last indefinitely

 

(B) standing, demonstrating how wooden buildings, when they have sound design and maintenance, can last indefinitely

 

(C) standing; they demonstrate if a wooden building has sound design and maintenance it can last indefinitely

 

(D) standing, and they demonstrate wooden buildings can last indefinitely when there is sound design and maintenance

 

(E) standing, and they demonstrate how a wooden building can last indefinitely when it has sound design and maintenance

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness/ Grammar

Parallelism

1 cons(have→with)

2 s/p/ref(it/they不統一)

3 cons(there)

4 p(and異質並記)

 

解答

[A]  

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 34

[E]2

 



Gsc7-27   211208wed

Many investors base their choice between bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields to the dividends available on common stocks.

 

(A) between bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields to

 

(B) among bonds and stocks on comparisons of bond yields to

 

(C) between bonds and stocks on comparisons of bond yields with

 

(D) among bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields and

 

(E) between bonds and stocks on comparing bond yields with

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity/ Grammar

Diction: compare A with B

1 s/p(between=2, among=3-)

2 cl(動名詞→N)

cf N of N'→動名詞+o

3 dic(compare with/ to △)

解答

[A] 23

[B] 13

[C]

[D]13

[E]2



Gsc7-26 211205sun

There is ample evidence, derived from the lore of traditional folk medicine, that naturally occurring antibiotics [are usually able to be modified to make them a more effective drug].

 

(A) are usually able to be modified to make them a more effective drug

 

(B) are usually able to be modified to make them more effective drugs

 

(C) are usually able to be modified, which makes them more effective drugs

 

(D) can usually be modified to make them a more effective drug

 

(E) can usually be modified to make them more effective drugs

 

解法のテクニック

Reference/ Grammar

Redundancy

able

1 red系(able受動=論理矛盾)

2 ref/sp(単/多)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc7-25 211201wed

South Korea has witnessed the world's most dramatic growth of Christian congregations; church membership is expanding by 6.6 percent a year, fully two-thirds of the growth [coming from conversions rather than the population increasing].

 

(A) coming from conversions rather than the population increasing

 

(B) coming from conversions rather than increases in the population

 

(C) coming from conversions instead of the population's increasing

 

(D) is from conversions instead of population increases

 

(E) is from conversions rather than increasing the population

 

解法のテクニック

Reference/ Grammar

Clarity/ Conciseness

★ increase→in

see A10

1 gram

2 ref(所有△)

3 cl(ずばり)

4 cons(ingN)

解答

[A] 3

[B]

[C] 24

[D] 1

[E]1



Gsc7-24 211128sun

Developing nations in various parts of the world have amassed $700 billion in debts; at stake, [should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, is] the solvency of some of the world's largest multinational banks.

 

(A) should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, is

 

(B) should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, are

 

(C) should they repudiate a significant number of these debts, are

 

(D) if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these debts, would be

 

(E) if a significant number of these debts will be repudiated, is

 

解法のテクニック

Inversion/ Grammar

Tense

倒置・if省略

1 s/p(倒置)

2 gram(時条件will xx)

3 cons(there)

4 tense(ifモード)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 34

[E]2



Gsc7-23 211124wed

[Reared apart from each other, a recent United States study showed striking similarities in identical twins, including many idiosyncrasies of behavior].

 

(A) Reared apart from each other, a recent United States study showed striking similarities in identical twins, including many idiosyncrasies of behavior.

 

(B) Reared apart from each other, striking similarities between identical twins that include many idiosyncrasies of behavior were shown in a recent United States study.

 

(C) A recent United States study showed striking similarities in identical twins reared apart from each other that include many idiosyncrasies of behavior.

 

(D) According to a recent United States study, identical twins reared apart from each other showed striking similarities, including many idiosyncrasies of behavior.

 

(E) According to a recent United States study, identical twins showed striking similarities reared apart from each other, including many idiosyncrasies of behavior.

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

Misplaced Modifier

1 dm

2 mm(that)

3 mm(-ed)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E]3

 



Gsc7-22 21121sun

In England the well-dressed [gentleman of the eighteenth century protected their clothing while having their wig powdered by poking their head] through a device that resembled the stocks.

 

(A) gentleman of the eighteenth century protected their clothing while having their wig powdered by poking their head

 

(B) gentleman of the eighteenth century protected his clothing while having his wig powdered by poking his head

 

(C) gentleman of the eighteenth century protected their clothing while having their wigs powdered by poking their heads

 

(D) gentlemen of the eighteenth century protected his clothing while having his wig powdered by poking his head

 

(E) gentlemen of the eighteenth century protected their clothing while having his wig powdered by poking his head

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement: Singular/Prural

Reference

ez

1 s/p/ref

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E]1



Gsc7-21 211114sun

The sale of government surplus machinery [will begin at 9 a.m. and continue until the supply lasts].

 

(A) will begin at 9 a.m. and continue until the supply lasts

 

(B) begins at 9 a.m., continuing until the supply lasts

 

(C) will begin at 9 a.m. and, until the supply lasts, will continue

 

(D) begins at 9 a.m. and, as long as the supply may last, it continues

 

(E) will begin at 9 a.m. and continue as long as the supply lasts

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy

Misplaced Modifier

trick

1 red系(until/last論理矛盾→until+終焉=ends/ not継続=last)

2 mm/cl(順/不要な挿入)

cf 挿入には意味がある事が多いが

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc7-20 211110wed

[Because there is not a linguistic census in France, as there is for Britain, there is difficulty in estimating] the number of speakers of Breton, a Celtic language.

 

(A) Because there is not a linguistic census in France, as there is for Britain, there is difficulty in estimating

 

(B) Because there is no linguistic census in France, unlike Britain, it is difficult to estimate

 

(C) Unlike Britain, there is no linguistic census in France, and that fact makes for difficulty in estimating

 

(D) There is not a linguistic census in France, as there is for Britain, a fact making for difficulty in the estimation of

 

(E) There is no linguistic census in France, as there is in Britain, a fact that makes it difficult to estimate

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness

Parallelism

1 cons/cl(あいまいnot)

cf not aはやばい!

2 p(in/for xx)

3 p(unlike-there is xx)

there is/fact that正解例

解答

[A] 12

[B]3

[C] 3

[D] 12

[E]



Gsc7-19 211103wed

Demographic studies show that Hispanics in the United States have established communities in every region and in most large cities of the country but [that they have been so selective that half of them live in only] ten metropolitan areas.

 

(A) that they have been so selective that half of them live in only

 

(B) that they have been selective enough that half of them live in only

 

(C) that they are selective enough so that half of them live in only

 

(D) they are so selective that half of them live only in

 

(E) they have been selective enough so that half of them live only in

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: enough

Parallelism: and that

1 dic(enough)

2 p(and that)

 

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]1

 



Gsc7-18 211031

In the field of infant learning, new technology has made [it possible to devise measurements that would a generation ago have been unable to be imagined].

 

(A) it possible to devise measurements that would a generation ago have been unable to be imagined

 

(B) it possible to devise measurements that would have been unimaginable a generation ago

 

(C) possible that one can devise measurements unimaginable a generation ago

 

(D) possible the devising of measurements that were not capable of being imagined a generation ago

 

(E) possible the devising of measurements that a generation ago would not have been able to be imagined

 

解法のテクニック

Diction/ Conciseness: able

Redundancy

unable

1 dic/cons(able系)

2 red系(ablecapable受動=論理矛盾)

3 dic(make it possible to

4 cons(the動名詞of→vo)

解答

[A] 12

[B]

[C]3

[D]234

[E] 124

 



Gsc7-17   211027wed

In 1869, anxious to balance [its population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming legislature] extended voting rights to women in Wyoming.

 

(A) its population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming legislature

 

(B) their population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, Wyoming's legislature

 

(C) the state's population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming legislature

 

(D) a state population of 8,000 men with 2,000 women, the legislature in Wyoming

 

(E) its population of 8,000 men with 2,000 women, Wyoming's legislature

 

解法のテクニック

Reference

Parallelism

ref(所有格it xx)

1 ref(所有格it xx)

2 ref(団体they xx)

3 p(並記はand

解答

[A] 1

[B]  12

[C]

[D] 3

[E] 1

 



Gsc7-16   211024sun

 

Private pensions [are usually regarded as compensation for work performed by the employee and are therefore not subject to being withheld] to punish personal misconduct.

 

(A) are therefore not subject to being withheld

 

(B) the employee therefore is not subject to their being withheld

 

(C) they therefore are not subject to be withheld

 

(D) therefore they cannot withhold them

 

(E) therefore cannot be withheld

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: subject

Conciseness

Reference

1 dic(be subject to N◎/

be subject to v xx)

2 cons(being)

3 ref(theyあいまい)

解答

[A] 2

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D] 3

[E]

 



Gsc7-15   211020wed

[The breathing capacity of nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke on the Job has been found to be significantly less than nonsmokers working in smoke-free environments, although] unrestricted smoking at work is permitted by nearly 75 percent of all employers in the United States.

 

(A) The breathing capacity of nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke on the job has been found to be significantly less than nonsmokers working in smoke-free environments, although

 

(B) The breathing capacity of nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke on the job has been found significantly less than nonsmokers working in smoke-free environments, however

 

(C) Although the breathing capacity of nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke on the job has been found significantly less than that of nonsmokers working in smoke-free environments, however

 

(D) Although the breathing capacity of nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke on the job has been found to be significantly less than that of nonsmokers working in smoke-free environments,

 

(E) Although the breathing capacity of nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke on the job has been found to be significantly less than nonsmokers working in smoke-free environments,

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar/ Redundancy

Parallelism/ Comparison

1 p/comp(that of)

2 gram/red(接although/however)

解答

[A] 1

[B]1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 1

 

 



Gsc7-14   211017sun

The Neanderthals, once considered dull-witted brutes, are now known [to have had brains] fully as large as our own.

 

(A) to have had brains

 

(B) as having brains that are

 

(C) to have brains that were

 

(D) that their brains were

 

(E) that they had brains that were

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: known

Tense: to---

1 dic(be known as+N/ to V)

2 cl(be known as+N/ to V系は、as+ing xx)

3 tense(to have=より過去)

解答

[A]

[B] 2

[C] 3

[D]1

[E]  1

 



Gsc7-13 211013wed

In the human female, an entire lifetime's supply of egg cells [are produced during fetal development and remain] dormant until puberty, where upon one egg is activated each month.

 

(A) are produced during fetal development and remain

 

(B) are produced while the fetus develops, and these cells remain

 

(C) are produced during fetal development; they remain

 

(D) is produced during fetal development, and these cells remain

 

(E) is produced while the fetus develops and remains

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar: Singular/ Plural

Ambiguous Modifier

1 s/p(sv sn of pl系)

2 am(is?/develops?←remains)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 2

 



Gsc7-12 211017sun

[The first balloon passengers were a sheep, a duck, and a rooster that were ascended] from Versailles, France, in a basket beneath a hot-air balloon in September 1783.

 

(A) The first balloon passengers were a sheep, a duck, and a rooster that were ascended

 

(B) The first balloon passengers were a sheep, a duck, and a rooster that ascended

 

(C) A sheep, a duck, and a rooster were the first balloon passengers that ascended

 

(D) A sheep, a duck, and a rooster that were the first balloon passengers to ascend

 

(E) A sheep, a duck, and a rooster were the first balloon passengers ascending

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar

Clarity/Conciseness

trick(that areはどっちにかかる?)

cl(o meaning)

1 gram

2 cl(o meaning)

3 cl/cons(受動→能動)

cf 関係詞の先行詞はあまい

解答

[A] 3

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 2

Gsc7-11 211006wed

The medical profession is not in agreement about how to treat snakebites; physicians are [unsure about how much antiserum to use, and there is controversy over] the relative merits of surgery and antivenins.

 

(A) unsure about how much antiserum to use, and there is controversy over

 

(B) not sure how much antiserum they should use and have a controversy about

 

(C) unsure how much antiserum they should use, and they have controversy about

 

(D) not sure as to how much antiserum they should be using, and there is a controversy over

 

(E) unsure about how much antiserum should be used, and they have a controversy as to what is

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: unsure/ controversy

Conciseness

1 dic(be unsure about/of)

unsure whは口語(2文型)

2 cons(wh should→wh to)

3 cons(as to wh△)

4 dic(conroversy over)

there正解例(主体あいまい)

解答

[A]

[B] 124

[C] 24

[D] 123

[E] 23

 



Gsc7-10 211003sun

 

[The rate of increase in the number of Black elected officials nationwide was greater last year than in] any other year since 1975, and the rate of increase for Black women elected to office was especially high.

 

(A) The rate of increase in the number of Black elected officials nationwide was greater last year than in

 

(B) The increased rate in the number of Black elected officials nationwide was greater last year than in

 

(C) The rate of increase in the number of Black elected officials was greater nationwide last year than

 

(D) The number of Black elected officials nationwide increased at a rate that was greater last year than

 

(E) Nationwide, the rate at which the number of Black elected officials increased last year was greater than

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison: more than any other

comp(m vs m)

1 cl(o meaning)

2 comp(more than any other系=差分不要/時期=now,last-の比較はin)

cf increase inは強い!

see B5

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 2

 



Gsc7-9   210929wed

[A new formula is being considered by Congress for the financing of federal assistance to mass transit, which, if they approve], could sharply decrease state subsides.

 

(A) A new formula is being considered by Congress for the financing of federal assistance to mass transit, which, if they approve

 

(B) Congress is considering a new formula for the financing of federal assistance to mass transit, which, if they approve

 

(C) Congress is considering a new formula for the financing of federal assistance to mass transit, a formula that, if there is approval

 

(D) Congress is considering a new formula for the financing of federal assistance to mass transit, a formula that, if approved

 

(E) A new formula being considered by Congress for the financing of federal assistance to mass transit, if it is approved

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity/ Conciseness: passive<active

Reference

Misplaced Modifier

1 cl/cons(受動→能動)

2 ref(団体they xx)

3 cons(there)

4 mm(, which)

5 cons(it is)

解答

[A] 123

[B] 24

[C] 3

[D]

[E] 15

 



Gsc7-8 210925sun

 

Monumental figurative structures such as the Great Serpent Mound of Adams County, Ohio, [show the supreme ability the Plains peoples had to capture the] grace and beauty on a massive scale.

 

(A) show the supreme ability the Plains peoples had to capture the

 

(B) show the supreme ability of the Plains peoples to capture

 

(C) show the Plains peoples' ability to capture supremely the

 

(D) shows the supreme ability the Plains peoples had in capturing

 

(E) shows the Plains peoples' supreme ability to capture

 

解法のテクニック

Singular/ Plural

Diction: ability

 

1 s/p(sv)

2 dic(ability of one to)

have、慣用なければ△

所有、正当化できないと△

解答

[A] 2

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 12

[E] 12

 



Gsc7-7 210920wed

 

Between 1970 and 1979 the value of the manufactured goods brought into the United States each year rose from [fewer than four billion dollars to that of almost] thirty billion.

 

(A) fewer than four billion dollars to that of almost

 

(B) as few as four billion dollars to that of almost

 

(C) fewer than four billion dollars to almost

 

(D) less than four billion dollars almost up to

 

(E) less than four billion dollars to almost

 

解法のテクニック

Singular/ Plural: (few/less系)

Redundancy

1 s/p(few/less系)

2 red(from up to xx)

解答

[A]1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc7-6   210919sun

Helen's mother was recovering at the hospital [when she suffered a second fatal attack].

 

(A) when she suffered a second fatal attack

 

(B) but then suffered a second fatal attack

 

(C) when she suffered a second and fatal attack

 

(D) and then suffered a second fatal attack

 

(E) when a second fatal attack was suffered

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy: 論理矛盾

trick

1 red(論理矛盾fatalsekondはない)

 

解答

[A]  1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 1

 



Gsc7-4  210912sun

 

Some consultants advise that allowing employees to voice their opinions to employers in periodic meetings can [result in greater awareness, better understanding, and confirmed or allayed] fears.

 

(A) result in greater awareness, better understanding, and confirmed or allayed

 

(B) result in greater awareness, a better understanding, and confirm or allay

 

(C) promote greater awareness, a better understanding, and confirmation or allaying of

 

(D) bring about increased awareness, better understanding, and confirm or allay

 

(E) increase awareness, improve understanding, and confirm or allay

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism:(A, B, and C)

Clarity

1 p(A, B, and C)

2 cl(ずばりresult in ...fear?!)

解答

[A] 2

[B]  1

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E]

 



When first introduced into North America, the tomato was regarded that it was poisonous and was planted only as an ornament.

 

(A) regarded that it was poisonous

 

(B) considered to be poison

 

(C) regarded as being poison

 

(D) considered poisonous

 

(E) regarded to be poisonous

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: consider

Gsc7-3 210908wed

When first introduced into North America, the tomato was regarded that it was poisonous and was planted only as an ornament.

 

(A) regarded that it was poisonous

 

(B) considered to be poison

 

(C) regarded as being poison

 

(D) considered poisonous

 

(E) regarded to be poisonous

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: consider

dic(consider系)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 

 



Gsc7-2 210905sun

[Like so many of Henry James's characters], Forster's heroes realize their provincial limitations and awaken to the possibility of a new life only when they venture abroad.

 

(A) Like so many of Henry James's characters

 

(B) Similar to Henry James

 

(C) Like so much of Henry James

 

(D) Similar with Henry James's characters

 

(E) Like so many of Henry James

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism: like

★ p(like)

文頭similar xx

所有格正解例

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc7-1 210901wed

[That there are Indo-Pacific shells resent in pre-historic caves in Britain and France mean] that as early as Neolithic times trade networks stretched from Western Europe to Asia.

 

(A) That there are Indo-Pacific shells present in prehistoric caves in Britain and France mean

 

(B) That present in prehistoric caves are Indo-Pacific shells in Britain and France means

 

(C) The prehistoric caves in which Indo-Pacific shells are present in Britain and France mean

 

(D) The presence of Indo-Pacific shells in prehistoric caves in Britain and France means

 

(E) The presence in prehistoric caves in Britain and France of Indo-Pacific shells mean

 

解法のテクニック

Agreemeny: singular/plural

Grammar/ Clarity

 

1 s/p(sv)

2 gram

3 cl(ずばりcaves mean?

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 3

[D]

[E] 1

 



Gsc6-39   210829sun

The National College Counseling Project charges that serious flaws in counseling and admissions are largely responsible [for the 60 percent of students who enter a given college as freshmen and do not] graduate from that institution.

 

(A) for the 60 percent of students who enter a given college as freshmen and do not

 

(B) for the 60 percent of students entering a given college as freshmen who do not

 

(C) that 60 percent of the students entering a given college as freshmen do not

 

(D) for the failure of 60 percent of the students entering a given college as freshmen not to

 

(E) for the failure of 60 percent of the students who enter a given college as freshmen to

 

解法のテクニック

clarity: (responsible for)

clarity/redundancy: (failure to

1 cl(responsible for何)

cf pay $-- for --

2 cl/red(failure to何、否定xx)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc6-38 210825wed

In the old Dutch settlement of Beverwyck?now Albany, New York?so many people were hurt and windows [broken that an ordinance was issued forbidding] golf in the streets.

 

(A) broken that an ordinance was issued forbidding

 

(B) broken that they issued an ordinance to forbid

 

(C) were broken that they issued an ordinance forbidding

 

(D) had been broken that an ordinance was issued to forbid

 

(E) had been broken that an ordinance was issued forbidding

 

解法のテクニック

Paralellism:s v c and s' (v) c'

★ cons/様式美

s v c and s' (v) c'1 ref(あいまいref they)

2 tense(had x)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E] 2



Gsc6-37 210822sun

For several years, companies in the United States have increased spending for research [far faster than the inflation rate].

 

(A) far faster than the inflation rate

 

(B) exceeding by far the rate of inflation

 

(C) far faster than rising inflation

 

(D) far faster than the rising of the inflation rate

 

(E) at a rate far exceeding the rate of inflation

 

解法のテクニック

Paralellism:

Y times as A as B

Y times more A than B

Y times the 尺度 of B

trick

1 p

2 p内容不一致

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc6-36 210818wed

Evidence [that landfills contaminate groundwater and that many landfills are reaching their capacity have] led city planners to look for alternative methods of disposal.

 

(A) that landfills contaminate and that many landfills are reaching their capacity have

 

(B) of landfills contaminating groundwater and that many landfills are reaching their capacity have

 

(C) of landfills contaminating groundwater and many landfills that are reaching their capacity has

 

(D) of landfills that contaminate groundwater and that many landfills are reaching their capacity has

 

(E) that landfills contaminate groundwater and that many landfills are reaching their capacity has

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement: singular/plural

Gramar/ Clarity

1 s/p

2 cone(which is)

3 gram(N and that xx)

4 cl(節・句)evidence(of/that)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 14

[C] 24

[D] 34

[E]



Gsc6-35 210815sun

An effort [to upgrade the health care of children begun two years ago] is starting to save lives in dramatic numbers, according to the executive board of the United Nations Children's Fund.

 

(A) to upgrade the health care of children begun two years ago

 

(B) begun two years ago for upgrading the health care of children

 

(C) begun two years ago to upgrade the health care of children

 

(D) at upgrading the health care of children begun two years ago

 

(E) that has begun two years ago to upgrade the health care of children

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: effort

Conciseness: which

trick

1 dic(effort to)

cf for ing→to

2 cons(which is)

3 mm( N of N 過去分△)

 

解答

[A] 3

[B]  1

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 2



Gsc6-34 210811wed

[Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its] ever-present congestion tolerable.

 

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

 

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

 

(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its

 

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

 

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes the

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism

1 p(何がイコール系:内容japanx culture)

2 p(何がイコール系:culture=system, culture=culture of a system xx)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc6-33 210808sun

Despite the increasing popularity among financial analysts of "operating cash flow" as a measure of a company's viability, a combination of six more conventional measures [has been shown to be more accurate to predict business failure].

 

(A) has been shown to be more accurate to predict business failure

 

(B) has been shown to predict business failure more accurately

 

(C) were shown to be more accurate to predict business failure

 

(D) have been shown to more accurately predict business failure

 

(E) have been shown to predict business failure more accurately

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement: singular/plural

Conciseness

1 s/p

2 cons(be 形→V)

 

解答

[A] 2

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc6-32 210804wed

On seeing Halley's comet in A.D., 66, the Jewish historian Josephus was persuaded that the apparition was a portent [of the destruction of Jerusalem, which] in fact took place four years later.

 

(A) of the destruction of Jerusalem, which

 

(B) of Jerusalem being destroyed, which

 

(C) for Jerusalem being destroyed, and that

 

(D) for Jerusalem to be destroyed, and that

 

(E) for the destruction of Jerusalem, and it

 

解法のテクニック

Diction

Conciseness

1 dic(portent of)

2 cons(being)

3 cl(,which)

解答

[A]

[B] 2

[C] 123

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc6-31 210728wed

[If the ice of Greenland and Antarctica were to melt, the sea level would rise at least 100 feet or more.]

 

(A) If the ice of Greenland and Antarctica were to melt, the sea level would rise at least 100 feet or more.

 

(B) Were the ice of Greenland and Antarctica to melt, the sea level would rise at least 100 feet.

 

(C) If the ice of Greenland and Antarctica was to melt, the sea level would rise at least 100 feet or more.

 

(D) If the ice of Greenland and Antarctica was melting, the sea level would rise at least 100 feet.

 

(E) Should the ice of Greenland and Antarctica melt, the sea level would rise at least 100 feet or more.

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy

Tense: if

仮定法過去

If I were a bird, I would fly to you.

 

仮定法現在(条件文)

50/50 chance

If she comes, I will be happy.

 

仮定法過去完了

If I had been a bird (then),

1)   I would have flwn to you (then).

2) I would fly to you (now).

 

以下、仮定法未来

 If she should cry, I will/ would be sad.

 If the earth were to explode, we would die.

1 red(at least)

2 tense(if)

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 12

[D] 2

[E] 1



Gsc6-30 210725sun

Designed to encourage debate, [the long-standing "equal-time" rule for broadcasters has, some contend, actually stifled it].

 

(A) the long-standing "equal-time" rule for broadcasters has, some contend, actually stifled it

 

(B) some contend that the long-standing "equal-time" rule for broadcasters has actually stifled it

 

(C) it has actually been stifled, some contend, by the long-standing "equal-time" rule for broadcasters

 

(D) some contend that it has actually been stifled by the long-standing "equal-time" rule for broadcasters

 

(E) actually, the long-standing "equal-time" rule for broadcasters has stifled it, some contend

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

1 dm

2 dm(分詞, m, s xx)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc6-29 210721wed

[As generators of electricity, small, relatively inexpensive windmills shaped like eggbeaters have several advantages over large, propeller-shaped wind- mills:] simplicity, reliability of stressed components, efficiency in converting wind energy, and beauty.

 

(A) As generators of electricity, small, relatively inexpensive windmills shaped like eggbeaters have several advantages over large, propeller shaped windmills:

 

(B) As generators of electricity, several advantages that small, relatively inexpensive windmills shaped like eggbeaters have over large, propeller-shaped windmills include

 

(C) Several advantages that small, relatively inexpensive windmills for generating electricity shaped like eggbeaters have over large, propeller-shaped windmills include

 

(D) Several advantages of small, relatively inexpensive windmills shaped like eggbeaters for generating electricity over large, propeller-shaped windmills include

 

(E) Small, relatively inexpensive windmills for generating electricity shaped like eggbeaters have the following several advantages over large, propeller-shaped windmills:

 

解法のテクニック

Parallelism

Misplaced Modifier

1 p(同格系as O, S)

2 mm(electricity shaped-x)

3 mm(eggbeaters for-x)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 3

[E]2



Gsc6-28 210728sun

Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted] into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

 

(A) among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted

 

(B) among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting

 

(C) among hunter-gatherer societies and that those persisting

 

(D) between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted

 

(E) between hunter-gatherer societies and that those persisting

 

解法のテクニック

between vs among

1 between the two

among the three-

2 p(and that)

解答

[A] 2

[B] 2

[C]

[D] 1

[E]1

 



Gsc6-27 210714wed

You could never find a surface [solid enough to stand on Saturn] because the planet is less dense than water.

 

(A) solid enough to stand on Saturn

 

(B) on Saturn where it is solid enough to stand

 

(C) where it is solid enough that you can stand on Saturn

 

(D) on Saturn that is solid enough to stand

 

(E) that is so solid that one can stand on Saturn

 

解法のテクニック

Misplaced Modifier: Saturn

trick

1 mm(surface-on Saturn)

2 gram

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C]

[D]1

[E]1



Gsc6-26 210711sun

Remembered for her 1902 expose of the Standard Oil Company and her later portrait of John D. Rockefeller, [President Theodore Roosevelt objected to Ida Tarbell in a wrathful outburst against "muck-rakers" in 1906].

 

(A) President Theodore Roosevelt objected to Ida Tarbell in a wrathful outburst against "muckrakers" in 1906

 

(B) in 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt objected to Ida Tarbell in a wrathful outburst against "muckrakers"

 

(C) in an outburst against "muckrakers" in 1906, Ida Tarbell was one of the objects of President Theodore Roosevelt's wrath

 

(D) Ida Tarbell was one of the objects of President Theodore Roosevelt's wrathful outburst against "muckrakers" in 1906

 

(E) one of the objects of President Theodore Roosevelt's wrathful outburst against "muckrakers" in 1906 was Ida Tarbell

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

★ dm/ref(her=Ida)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc6-24 210704sun

The Census Bureau reports that more than three fifths of all married couples in the United States now have two incomes, significantly more than [earlier decades did].

 

(A) earlier decades did

 

(B) earlier decades

 

(C) in earlier decades

 

(D) earlier decades have

 

(E) that in earlier decades

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison!

消去法/ comp(不等対比

1 couples=decades?

2 incomes=decades?

3 tense(過去have?)

★ comp(同格=N対N/時代adv-now/in-)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C]

[D] 3

[E]4



Gsc6-23 210630wed

Alcohol may interfere with the ability of the brain cells [as they form] the proteins considered essential to short-term memory.

 

(A) as they form

 

(B) forming

 

(C) in the formation of

 

(D) to form

 

(E) when they form

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: ability (of one) to

★ ability to

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc6-22 210627sun

Marshal Zhu De, commander of the Communist armies that conquered China, is [so revered in the pantheon of revolutionary heroes that a memorial room was] built for him in the Mao Zedong mausoleum.

 

(A) so revered in the pantheon of revolutionary heroes that a memorial room was

 

(B) so revered in the pantheon of revolutionary heroes as to have a memorial room that was

 

(C) so revered in the pantheon of revolutionary heroes for a memorial room to be

 

(D) revered enough in the pantheon of revolutionary heroes that a memorial room was

 

(E) revered enough in the pantheon of revolutionary heroes for a memorial room to be

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: so A that B > so A as to

★ so that

so as to/ enough

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc6-21 210623wed

The line of descent of apes and humans is believed by most paleontologists [that it split] into several branches some time between 20 million and 5 million years ago.

 

(A) that it split

 

(B) to have split

 

(C) to split

 

(D) that they were split

 

(E) to be split

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: be believed to have

★ be be believed to have

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc6-20 210620sun

Black officers at the executive rank of general or admiral, of whom there are over seventy in the armed services, have not, until recently, been [present in comparable numbers, either in amount or proportion], among high executives in major corporations.

 

(A) present in comparable numbers, either in amount or proportion,

 

(B) present in comparable numbers, either numerically or proportionally

 

(C) present in comparable numbers or proportion

 

(D) matched by Blacks in either comparable amount or proportion

 

(E) matched by a comparable number or proportion of Blacks

 

解法のテクニック

countable vs uncountable: number vs amount

Redundancy

1 cl(内容Black表現なし)

2 mm/cons(in-ひとつにまとめる)

3 number/amount

4 red(munber/amount etc)

解答

[A] 14

[B14

[C] 1

[D] 23

[E]



Gsc6-18 210613sun

Scientists now recognize that infants are well prepared for certain tasks, such as obtaining sustenance and maintaining contact with other people, and they do not any longer consider even newborns to be helpless, passive beings.

 

(A) do not any longer consider even newborns to be

 

(B) do not any longer regard even newborns to be

 

(C) no longer regard even newborns to be

 

(D) no longer regard even newborns as

 

(E) no longer consider even newborns as being

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: consider

★ dic(consider)

1 cons(否定not any→no)

解答

[A] 1

[B]1

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc6-17 210609wed

A stained glass window at Vassar College depicts the thesis defense of Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia, who in June 1678 [became the first woman to receive] a doctoral degree.

 

(A) became the first woman to receive

 

(B) came to be the first woman to receive

 

(C) was the first woman that received

 

(D) is the first woman who has received

 

(E) was the first woman who received

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: be the first N to

★ be the first N to

cf

be the first N過去分詞

正解例あり

cons(come to→become)

解答

[A]

[B]  

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc6-16   210607sun

To construct general-purpose industrial robots that could approximate human dexterity, adaptability, and sensory capabilities would [be both extremely difficult and would waste resources since] less costly special-purpose robots can already surpass human beings at many specific tasks.

 

(A) be both extremely difficult and would waste resources since

 

(B) be both extremely difficult as well as a waste of resources as

 

(C) both be extremely difficult and a waste of resources as

 

(D) both be extremely difficult as well as waste resources since

 

(E) be extremely difficult and would waste resources as well since

 

解法のテクニック

Parallel/ Redundancy: both vs as well

★ p/red(both/as well)

and/as well正解例

cf 8

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc6-15   210601wed

Federal judges are sentencing white-collar criminals to prison with [more and more frequency and the sentencing, even though still shorter than the average for crimes such as armed robbery, have increased] in length.

 

(A) more and more frequency and the sentencing, even though still shorter than the average for crimes such as armed robbery, have increased

 

(B) more and more frequency and the sentencing, though still shorter than the average for such crimes as armed robbery, has increased

 

(C) higher frequency and the sentences, even though still shorter than the average for crimes such as armed robbery, are increased

 

(D) greater frequency and the sentencing, although still shorter than the average for such crimes as armed robbery, has been increasing

 

(E) greater frequency and the sentences, though still shorter than the average for such crimes as armed robbery, have increased

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: ingN

Clarity/ Conciseness : Active/ Passive

1 s/p

2 ing→N

3 受動△

4 cons(more and more不正解例)

解答

[A] 14

[B]24

[C] 3

[D] 2

[E]

 

 



Gsc6-14 210530sun

[Based on the complexity of the orchestration of the human body’s various systems that are]

involved in sleeping, it is remarkable that anyone ever sleeps without disturbance.

 

(A) Based on the complexity of the orchestration of the human body's various systems that are

 

(B) With the complex orchestration of the various human body systems being

 

(C) Because of the complex orchestration of the various systems of the human body

 

(D) Given the complexity of orchestrating the various systems of the human body that are

 

(E) Since it is complex orchestrating the various human body systems that are

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier/ Diction: Based on

Conciseness/ Clarity:  Since? Because of?

★ dic(given)

1 dm(based on x)

2 cons(being) with不正解例

3 becouse of△

4 it-ing x

cf that are正解例

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 3

[D]

[E]  4

 



Gsc6-13 210526wed

The senator recommended that social security laws [should be changed so that women who

have taken time off from paying jobs to raise families do not suffer financially].

 

(A) should be changed so that women who have taken time off from paying jobs to raise families do not suffer financially

 

(B) be changed so that women who have taken time off from paying jobs to raise families do not suffer financially

 

(C) change so as to not have women who have taken time off from paying jobs to raise families suffer financially

 

(D) be changed in order not to have women suffer financially who have taken time off from paying jobs to raise families

 

(E) should change so women who have taken time off from paying jobs to raise families do not suffer financially

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: 要求 that 原形

Conciseness: to

1 order be系(recommend)

2 to系(so as to x, in order not to x)

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 1

 



Gsc6-12 210523sun

The [homes' growing use of electricity makes it increasingly important for homeowners to

evaluate their electrical capacity].

 

(A) The homes' growing use of electricity makes it increasingly important for homeowners to evaluate their electrical capacity.

 

(B) Homes' growth in electrical use makes it increasingly important for homeowners to evaluate their electrical capacity.

 

(C) The growing use of electricity in the home makes it increasingly important for homeowners to evaluate the electrical capacity of their houses.

 

(D) The growing use of electricity in the home makes it of increasing importance for homeowners to evaluate their electrical capacity in their houses.

 

(E) Growth of the home's use of electricity makes it of increasing importance that homeowners should evaluate the electrical capacity in the house

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness

Reference

1 cons(of N→形)

2 所有?

3 ref/cl(their?)

解答

[A] 23

[B] 23

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 12



Gsc6-11 210519wed

To politicians and cartographers, Syria is an invention of the twentieth century; but to

scholars, the name [refers to a once vast, occasionally powerful, always proud empire].

 

(A) refers to a once vast, occasionally powerful, always proud empire

 

(B) refers to an at one time vast and occasionally powerful empire that was always proud

 

(C) refers to an empire once vast, occasionally powerful, that was always proud

 

(D) has reference to an at one time vast empire, occasionally powerful, that was always proud

 

(E) has reference to an empire that was at one time vast, was occasionally powerful, and always proud

解法のテクニック

Conciseness: which?

Conciseness: have?

1 cons(which is)

2 cons(have-→V)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 12

[E] 12

 



Gsc6-10 210516sun

The chemistry of living cells depends on thousands of different enzymes, [each of which are catalysts] for a particular chemical reaction.

 

(A) each of which are catalysts

 

(B) each of which is a catalyst

 

(C) each being catalysts

 

(D) all a catalyst

 

(E) which are all catalysts

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement : each

1 s/p(each of which/all)

2 s/p(後ろ)

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 2

 



Gsc6-8 210509sun

From a very close relationship with one of its parents, [a relationship that lasts thirteen to fifteen years, a young chimpanzee learns appropriate social behavior as well as skills for survival] in the jungle.

 

(A) a relationship that lasts thirteen to fifteen years, a young chimpanzee learns appropriate social behavior as well as skills for survival

 

(B) a relationship that lasts thirteen to fifteen years, a young chimpanzee learns socially appropriate behavior and also in addition skills to survive

 

(C) which lasts thirteen to fifteen years, a young chimpanzee learns how to behave socially and in addition also to survive

 

(D) which lasts thirteen to fifteen years, a young chimpanzee learns appropriate social behavior as well as survival skills

 

(E) lasting thirteen to fifteen years, a young chimpanzee learns social behavior that is appropriate and also survival skills as well

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy

Reference: which?

1 red(and/in addition, also/as well)

cf and/as well ok 16

2 mm(,which x)

cf cl 同格繰り返し表現

19

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 12

[D] 3

[E] 1

 



Gsc6-6 210502sun

Experimenters have discovered that [salamanders are many more times more sensitive to magnetic cues than homing pigeons and use] the magnetic field of the Earth to find their way from place to

place.

 

(A) salamanders are many more times more sensitive to magnetic cues than homing pigeons and use

 

(B) salamanders are many times more sensitive to magnetic cues than are homing pigeons and use

 

(C) salamanders are sensitive to magnetic cues, many more times so than homing pigeons are, using

 

(D) the sensitivity of salamanders to magnetic cues is many times that of homing pigeons, and they use

 

(E) the sensitivity of salamanders to magnetic cues is many times that of homing pigeons, using

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison/ Redundancy

Conciseness

1 comp/red(more重複)

2 cons(so不要)

3 cons(that of不要)

解答

[A]  1

[B]

[C] 12

[D] 3

[E] 3

 



Gsc6-5 210428wed

The report of The Worldwatch Institute cites the growing militarization of the world economy, with an increasing percentage of raw materials, labor, and capital devoted to the production and purchase of weapons, [as major causes of what they describe] as "the worst economic crisis in a half century."

 

(A) as major causes of what they describe

 

(B) that are the major causes of what they describe

 

(C) as major causes of what it describes

 

(D) that is the major cause of what it describes

 

(E) as the major cause of what it describes

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement: singular/plural

Diction: cite A as B

1 dic(cite A as B)

2 s/p

解答

[A] 2

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E]

 



Gsc6-4  210425sun

The committee had several suggestions for improving the quality of education: the class day and school year should be made longer for students at all levels; teachers' salaries [raised by a 30 percent increase] over three years; and United States educators should study patterns of educational success in other nations.

 

(A) raised by a 30 percent increase

 

(B) raised by 30 percent

 

(C) should have a 30 percent increase

 

(D) should be raised 30 percent

 

(E) should be raised by a 30 percent increase

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル

conciseness

redundancy

1 p(A, B, and C should)

2 cons(have-→V)

3 red(raise/increase)

 

解答

[A] 13

[B]  1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 3

 


Gsc6-3 210421wed

The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere has increased seven percent [since 1958, when systematic measurement began].

 

(A) since 1958, when systematic measurement began

 

(B) from 1958, the beginning of systematic measurement

 

(C) from 1958, which was the beginning of systematic measurement

 

(D) after 1958, when there were the beginnings of systematic measurement

 

(E) since 1958, when there were the beginnings of systematic measurement

 

解法のテクニック

tense(have=since>from, for)

conciseness (there, which is)

1 tense(have=since>from, for)

2 cons(there, which is)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 12

[D] 12

[E] 2

 



Gsc6-2 210418sun

At the time of the American Revolution, most of the tools employed in farming were little different than the ones that [were in use during] 2,000 years.

 

(A) were little different than the ones that were in use during

 

(B) were a little different than those that have been in use during

 

(C) differed little from those that had been in use for

 

(D) differed little from the ones that have been used during

 

(E) were little different from the ones being used for

 

解法のテクニック

dction & conciseness: differ vs different

diction: during vs for

1 dic/cons(differ>be different>than)

cf different than 正解例あり

2 during/for

 

解答

[A] 12

[B] 12

[C]

[D] 2

[E] 1

 



Gsc6-1 210414wed

The taproot of a coffee tree seedling must be put in the ground absolutely straight [or else otherwise it will die].

 

(A) or else otherwise it will die

 

(B) so as not to die

 

(C) not to die

 

(D) or else they die

 

(E) or it will die

 

解法のテクニック

cons(さもないと=or)

cf so as not to xx

★ cons(さもないと=or)

cf so as not to xx

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc5-39 210407wed

Like many African countries, [Chad's amalgam of religious and ethnic groups were arbitrarily united] under colonial rule.

 

(A) Chad's amalgam of religious and ethnic groups were arbitrarily united

 

(B) the amalgam of religious and ethnic groups that constitute Chad were arbitrarily united

 

(C) the religious and ethnic groups that constitute Chad were arbitrarily united into an amalgam

 

(D) Chad is an amalgam of religious and ethnic groups that were arbitrarily united

 

(E) Chad's religious and ethnic groups were arbitrarily united into an amalgam

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Like O, S V

like

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc5-38 210404sun

Montezuma's messengers carried gifts to Cortes fit for the returning god [he was thought to be].

 

(A) he was thought to be

 

(B) that they all thought of him as

 

(C) he was considered

 

(D) he was regarded as

 

(E) he had been considered to be

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness

Diction: be thought to

1 cons

2 dic (be thought to)be

→be

 

C+O was considered  x

O1 O2 was regarded as  x

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 1



Gsc5-37 210331wed

Many states, in search of industries that are [clean, fast-growing, and pay] good wages to skilled workers, are trying to attract high-technology industries.

 

(A) clean, fast-growing, and pay

 

(B) clean, grow fast, and that pay

 

(C) clean and fast-growing and that pay

 

(D) clean and grow fast, paying

 

(E) clean, fast-growing, and paying

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル

Clarity

trick

1 p

2 p内容不一致

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 2



Gsc5-36 210328sun

With 2.2 billion passengers a year, the Tokyo subway system carries 50 percent [more people than New York and has less] than half as many cars.

 

(A) more people than New York and has less

 

(B) over what New York's does and has less

 

(C) as much as New York, having fewer

 

(D) more people than New York's with fewer

 

(E) more people than New York, having fewer

 

解法のテクニック

Countable/ Uncountable

パラレル


less/much

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]


Gsc5-35 210324wed

[Each archaeological discovery at Pompeii is photographed when it is uncovered in order that if it disintegrates] while being moved, it will not be lost completely.

 

(A) Each archaeological discovery at Pompeii is photographed when it is uncovered in order that if it disintegrates

 

(B) Every archaeological discovery at Pompeii is photographed as they uncover it so that should it disintegrate

 

(C) Each archaeological discovery at Pompeii is photographed as it is uncovered so that if it disintegrates

 

(D) Every archaeological discovery at Pompeii has been photographed when they uncover it so that should it disintegrate

 

(E) Each archaeological discovery at Pompeii has been photographed when it is uncovered in order that if it disintegrates

 

解法のテクニック

Reference: they?

Tense

Diction: in order to vs in order that

1 ref(団体不明they

2 tense(has/when x

3 dic(in order that x

解答

[A] 3

[B]  1

[C]

[D] 12

[E] 2



Gsc5-34 210321sun

[About 95 percent of the world population seem to be] immune to leprosy and even those who are susceptible are at risk only after long-term exposure to an active case.

 

(A) About 95 percent of the world population seem to be

 

(B) About 95 percent of the world's population seems to be

 

(C) It is about 95 percent of the population of the world that seem to be

 

(D) The world's population seems to be about 95 percent

 

(E) The population of the world seems to be about 95 percent

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity/ Diction: x% of countable?uncountable?

cl/dic(x% of s/p

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc5-33 210317wed

This is proving to be the sixth consecutive year [in which net farm income is sharply depressed].

 

(A) in which net farm income is sharply depressed

 

(B) in which there would be sharply depressed net farm income

 

(C) for net farm income being sharply depressed

 

(D) for the sharp depression of net farm income

 

(E) of net farm income that was sharply depressed

 

解法のテクニック

or

Conciseness

1 節or句

2 cons(being/ther/thatwas)

3 sharp<sharply

cf proving進行

解答

[A]

[B] 2

[C] 12

[D] 13

[E] 12



Gsc5-32 210321sun

When adjusted for body weight, [children of various age-groups in the United States have a caffeine intake that ranges from 36 to 58 percent of the average amount consumed by adults].

 

(A) children of various age-groups in the United States have a caffeine intake that ranges from 36 to 58 percent of the average amount consumed by adults

 

(B) the caffeine intake of children of various age-groups in the United States ranges from 36 to 58 percent of the average amount consumed by adults

 

(C) various age-groups of children in the United States range in caffeine intake from 36 to 58 percent of that consumed by the average adult

 

(D) in the United States, children of various age-groups have a caffeine intake that ranges from 36 to 58 percent of the average adult's consumption

 

(E) in the United States, the caffeine intake of children in various age-groups ranges from 36 to 58 percent of that consumed by the average adult

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

dm

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]




Gsc5-31 210310wed

Just as the economy and society of the preindustrial state were radically different from [the modern nation-state, so too their art served a very different function from that which art has] in our society today.

 

(A) the modern nation-state, so too their art served a very different function from that which art has

 

(B) the modern nation-state, so too their art served a very different function than art does

 

(C) those of the modern nation-state, so too its art served a very different function than art does

 

(D) those of the modern nation-state, so too their art served a very different function from what art has

 

(E) that of the modern nation-state, so too its art served a very different function than art has

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレル:those

Agreement

 

1 P(those)

2 s/p(代動詞

cf different than節

cf just as - so

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 2

[E] 1




Gsc5-29 210207sun

Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the question of [if there is to be] enough food to feed the growing world population has been raised repeatedly.

 

(A) if there is to be

 

(B) if there may be

 

(C) if there were

 

(D) whether there will be

 

(E) whether or not there be

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: whether vs if

1 dic(whether>if

2 dic(whether原x

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E]2




Gsc5-28 210303wed

The homicide rate of the United States is eight to nine times [that of] other major industrial countries.

 

(A) that of

 

(B) that which it is in

 

(C) higher than the

 

(D) higher as that of

 

(E) what they are in

 

解法のテクニック

Diction:

Y times as A as B

Y times more A than B

Y times the 尺度 of B

★ dic/comp(x times/ that

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc5-27 210228sun

Core inflation is generally defined [to be the rate at which increases in the cost of labor exceeds] gains in productivity .

 

(A) to be the rate at which increases in the cost of labor exceeds

 

(B) to be the rate of increases in labor costs exceeding

 

(C) as the rate at which increases in labor costs exceed

 

(D) as the rate of labor cost increases exceeding

 

(E) as the rate of increases in the cost of labor exceeding

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: define A as B

Diction: the rate at which vs of

Agreement

1 dic(define A as B)

2 cl(節or句(the rate at which/of)

3 s/p

cf 8

解答

[A] 13

[B] 12

[C]

[D] 2

[E]2



Gsc5-26 210224wed

In the fifteenth century, when coal first began to have commercial value, women and children did the hardest work in the [mines: they were hauling baskets on their hands and knees out of poorly ventilated tunnels].

 

(A) mines: they were hauling baskets on their hands and knees out of poorly ventilated tunnels

 

(B) mines, and hauled baskets out of poorly ventilated tunnels on their hands and knees

 

(C) mines, the hauling, on their hands and knees, of baskets out of poorly ventilated tunnels

 

(D) mines: out of poorly ventilated tunnels, they hauled baskets on their hands and knees

 

(E) mines: on their hands and knees, they hauled baskets out of poorly ventilated tunnels

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル

Clarity

Misplaced Modifier

irck

1 p(様式(過去には過去→進行x→過去)

2 cl/p(and並記?(別事象)

3 語源(the hauling of→haul)

4 mm

cf ;  :

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 3

[D] 4

[E]



Gsc5-25 210221sun

Many physicians are now suggesting that moderate fevers be allowed to run their course, for they may shorten the illness, enhance the action of antibiotics, and [the chances of spreading the infection to others may be reduced].

 

(A) the chances of spreading the infection to others may be reduced

 

(B) there may be a reduction of chances that the infection be spread to others

 

(C) the chances that the infection may be spread to others is reduced

 

(D) may reduce the chances of spreading the infection to others

 

(E) reduce the chances of spreading the infection to others

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:A, B, and C

★ p(A, B, and C)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc5-24 210217wed

According to Ms. Haskell's recent study, the [amount of people who appear at church-operated emergency food centers have] increased during the past year from 40 percent at some facilities to 600 percent at others.

 

(A) amount of people who appear at church-operated emergency food centers have

 

(B) amount of people appearing at church-operated emergency food centers have

 

(C) amount of people appearing at church-operated emergency food centers has

 

(D) number of people appearing at church-operated emergency food centers has

 

(E) number of people who have been appearing at church-operated emergency food centers have

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement: number vs amount

1 s/p(amount/number

2 s/p

)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E]2



Gsc5-23 210214sun

Some researchers believe that embryonic tissue will one day [not only be used to correct such tragic conditions as paralysis that results from spinal-cord injury but also some currently untreatable disorders of the brain].

 

(A) not only be used to correct such tragic conditions as paralysis that results from spinal-cord injury but also some currently untreatable disorders of the brain

 

(B) not only be used to correct tragic conditions such as paralysis that results from spinal-cord injury but some currently untreatable disorders of the brain as well

 

(C) be used not only to correct such tragic conditions as paralysis resulting from spinal-cord injury but some currently untreatable disorders of the brain as well

 

(D) be used to correct not only tragic conditions such as paralysis resulting from spinal-cord injury as well as some currently untreatable disorders of the brain

 

(E) be used to correct not only such tragic conditions as paralysis resulting from spinal-cord injury but also some currently untreatable disorders of the brain

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: not only

★ p/dic(not only

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 




Gsc5-22 210210wed

At the beginning of the last century, Latin America was [richer and more populous than] the United States.

 

(A) richer and more populous than

 

(B) more populous and rich when compared with

 

(C) richer and more populous compared to

 

(D) more populous and richer than was

 

(E) richer and more populous in comparison to

 

解法のテクニック

Diction/ Comparison/ Conciseness

1 comp(compare<比較

2 comp(v不要

 

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]1



Gsc5-21 210207sun

Many life insurance policies offer holders [the right that they can borrow against the cash value of their policy] at an interest rate of 5 to 8 percent, depending on the state-mandated ceiling on such loans.

 

(A) the right that they can borrow against the cash value of their policy

 

(B) the right to borrow against the cash value of their policies

 

(C) the right permitting that they can borrow against the cash value of a policy

 

(D) rights permitting borrowing against the cash value of a policy

 

(E) rights allowing borrowing against the cash value of policies

 

解法のテクニック

diction: the right of one to

1 dic( the right of one to)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc5-20 210203wed

Though it has not yet vanished from the pregame training table, steak has largely been replaced by carbohydrates, [delivering energy much faster than protein does].

 

(A) delivering energy much faster than protein does

 

(B) which deliver energy much faster than protein

 

(C) delivering energy much faster than protein

 

(D) which deliver energy much faster than protein does

 

(E) much faster at delivering energy than protein

 

解法のテクニック

Ambiguous Modifier

パラレリズム:Comparison

1 mm(-, ing vs ,which)

2 comp(比較(nn)代動詞必要

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc5-19 210131sun

 The federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act includes an exception permitting companies to require that certain executives in high policy-making positions [to retire] at 65.

 

(A) to retire

 

(B) should retire

 

(C) are retired

 

(D) have to retire

 

(E) retire

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: require

★ dic(require

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc5-18 210127wed

 With government funds no longer increasing and private philanthropy [no longer able to carry the burden it once did], the major research universities are turning to the one likely source of additional funds: the major corporations.

 

(A) no longer able to carry the burden it once did

 

(B) no longer able to carry the burden it once had

 

(C) able no longer to carry the burden which it had once

 

(D) no longer having the ability of carrying the burden it once had

 

(E) no longer with the ability of carrying the burden that it did once

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル

1 p(no longer)

2 cons(having) trick!

3 comp(代動詞(had, vなし)

or cl(carry/have original m

4 dic ability of one to

解答

[A]

[B] 3

[C] 1

[D] 24

[E] 34

 



Gsc5-17 210124sun

The life expectancy of urban residents is somewhat higher than[ people living in small towns and considerably higher than] people who live on farms.

 

(A) people living in small towns and considerably higher than

 

(B) that of people living in small towns and considerably higher than that of

 

(C) it is for people living in small towns and considerably higher than those of

 

(D) that of people living in small towns and considerably higher than

 

(E) they are for people living in small towns and considerably higher than they are

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレル

★ p/comp(that of

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc5-15 210117sun

Once the site of pilgrimages to the Aztec god of the caves, [each Sunday now attracts hundreds of Christians wearing flower wreaths to Chalma].

 

(A) each Sunday now attracts hundreds of Christians wearing flower wreaths to Chalma

 

(B) hundreds of Christians wearing Rower wreaths are now attracted to Chalma each Sunday

 

(C) Chalma now attracts hundreds of Christians wearing flower wreaths each Sunday

 

(D) hundreds of Christians wearing flower wreaths are now attracted each Sunday to Chalma

 

(E) Chalma now attracts each Sunday hundreds of Christians wearing flower wreaths

 

解法のテクニック

パラレリズム:同格

misplaced modifier

trick

1 p(同格

2 mm(each Sunday)

解答

[A] 1

[B]1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 1

 

 



Gsc5-14 210113wed

Drug therapy can [supplement, but it does not replace psychotherapy as they treat a disease which has] psychological and physiological components.

 

(A) supplement, but it does not replace psychotherapy as they treat a disease which has

 

(B) supplement, but they do not replace psychotherapy in the treating of a disease having

 

(C) supplement but does not replace psychotherapy as they treat a disease having

 

(D) supplement but not replace psychotherapy in the treatment of a disease that has

 

(E) supplement, but there is no replacement for psychotherapy in the treatment of a disease that has

 

解法のテクニック

Agreement

Conciseness/ Clarity

1 s/p

2 cons/cl(there is

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E]  2

 



Gsc5-13 200110sun

The Marconi affair was a financial imbroglio [where there were allegations as to a group of British politicians who had influenced] government policy in order to profit from their holdings in the Marconi Company.

 

(A) where there were allegations as to a group of British politicians who had influenced

 

(B) where it was alleged a group of British politicians influenced

 

(C) which alleged that a group of British politicians had influenced

 

(D) in which it was alleged that a group of British politicians had influenced

 

(E) that was alleged to have a group of British politicians influencing

 

解法のテクニック

place?

subject?

1 dic(where(場所以外x)

2 cl(内容 which alleged x

3 cl(内容 imbroglio=have x

cf dic be alleged to/it is alleged that

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 3

 



Gsc5-10 201230wed

Contrary to popular assumptions, both speculation in securities and real estate and acquisitions of existing companies [does not waste capital that would otherwise be used for productive investment].

 

(A) does not waste capital that would otherwise be used for productive investment

 

(B) does not waste the capital to be used in other ways for productive investment

 

(C) do not waste the capital to be used otherwise and be invested productively

 

(D) do not waste capital that would otherwise be used for productive investment

 

(E) is not wasteful of capital otherwise to be used for investing productively

 

解法のテクニック

  Agreement: both A and B

  パラレリズム

1 s/p(both-pl

2 mm/cl(waste-be-and be ?original m)

 

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 1

 



Gsc5-9 201227sun

Recent studies have shown that [fewer women are depressed by the "empty nest" than psychologists have once assumed]; in fact, many women now look forward to new interests or careers when their children leave home.

 

(A) fewer women are depressed by the "empty nest" than psychologists have once assumed

 

(B) fewer women are depressed by the "empty nest" than psychologists once assumed

 

(C) the number of women depressed by the "empty nest" is less than psychologists have once assumed

 

(D) less women are depressed by the "empty nest" than psychologists assume

 

(E) less women are depressed by the "empty nest" than psychologists have assumed

 

解法のテクニック

  Agreement: few/less

  Tense: once

1 s/p(few/less

2 tense(once=過去

have once xx

解答

[A] 2

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 1

 



Gsc5-8 201223wed

Alcohol not only causes automobile accidents but also [the injuries, especially to the spinal cord, may be more severe:.

 

(A) the injuries, especially to the spinal cord, may be more severe

 

(B) there may be more severe injuries, especially to the spinal cord

 

(C) may increase the severity of injuries, especially to the spinal cord

 

(D) the injuries to the spinal cord especially may be more severe

 

(E) the severity of injuries, especially to the spinal cord, may increase

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:not only A but also B

★not only

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



 

Gsc5-7 201220sun

The central issue before the court was how far the regulatory agencies should go [in requiring better working conditions in factories].

 

(A) in requiring better working conditions in factories

 

(B) as far as requiring better working conditions in factories

 

(C) in their requirement that factories should have better working conditions

 

(D) as far as requiring that factories should have better working conditions

 

(E) to require factories to have better working conditions

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity/ Diction

1 dic/cl(original(in ing)

2 cl(ずばり(require what?)

 

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 2

 



Gsc5-4  201206sun

Professor Hill presents evidence to show that J. Edgar Hoover sought to imprison or deport Marcus Garvey, [whom he perceived as an international threat].

 

(A) whom he perceived as an international threat

 

(B) whom he perceived to be internationally threatening

 

(C) whom he perceived was internationally threatening

 

(D) who was perceived by him to be internationally threatening

 

(E) who was perceived by him that he was an international threat

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: see/ view/ percieve as

Agreement: sort

1 cons(of them)

2 red(more-majority)

3 cons(a half)

4 s/p(degree-sort)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 34

 



Gsc5-4  201206sun

Professor Hill presents evidence to show that J. Edgar Hoover sought to imprison or deport Marcus Garvey, [whom he perceived as an international threat].

 

(A) whom he perceived as an international threat

 

(B) whom he perceived to be internationally threatening

 

(C) whom he perceived was internationally threatening

 

(D) who was perceived by him to be internationally threatening

 

(E) who was perceived by him that he was an international threat

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: see/ view/ percieve as

1 perceive as

2 受動→能動

3 cl/cons(threat)

解答

[A]

[B]  13

[C] 13

[D] 12

[E] 12

 



Gsc5-3 201129sun

[Almost each major-league baseball pitcher will experience] shoulder or elbow pain in the course of a baseball season.

 

(A) Almost each major-league baseball pitcher will experience

 

(B) Almost every major-league baseball pitcher experiences

 

(C) Just about every one of the pitchers in major-league baseball do experience

 

(D) Almost all major-league baseball pitchers have experience with

 

(E) Common to almost each major-league baseball pitcher is the experience of

 

解法のテクニック

Singular/ Plural

Diction: almost=程度表現、とすると?!

1 dic(almost- x%

2 cons(have experience-)

3 s/p(one-do)

4 cl(original mean

 

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 34

[D] 2

[E] 1

 



Gsc5-2 201125wed

[If a mollusk is considered edible or not is purely a cultural matter and has] little to do with any of the animal's inherent properties.

 

(A) If a mollusk is considered edible or not is purely a cultural matter and has

 

(B) If mollusks are considered edible or not are purely cultural matters and they have

 

(C) Whether a mollusk is considered edible or not is purely a cultural matter and has

 

(D) That mollusks are considered edible is purely a cultural matter and it has

 

(E) Should mollusks be considered edible is purely a cultural matter and it has

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: whether vs if

1 dic(if - or not x

2 it (cons)

3 cl(that?内容?

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 23

[E] 23

 



Gsc5-1 201122sun

Unlike most modern inks, which fade and even disappear after a few decades the [ink on the Dead Sea Scrolls remains dark and legible during] more than twenty centuries.

 

(A) ink on the Dead Sea Scrolls remains dark and legible during

 

(B) ink on the Dead Sea Scrolls has remained dark and legible for

 

(C) Dead Sea Scrolls' ink remains dark and legible during

 

(D) Dead Sea Scrolls and their ink have remained dark and legible for

 

(E) dark and legible ink on the Dead Sea Scrolls have remained so for

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Unlike O, S V

Tense: during vs for

1 p(unlike

2 tense(during 年号

   for 期間

3 s/p

4 cons(不要so

解答

[A] 2

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 34

 



Gsc4-40 201115sun

A new method of deriving the vaccine for hoof-and-mouth disease from E. coli bacteria allows for levels of serum production [that are more than a thousand times as high per bacterium than] was previously possible.

 

(A) that are more than a thousand times as high per bacterium than

 

(B) that are more than a thousand times higher per bacterium as

 

(C) that are more than a thousand times higher per bacterium than

 

(D) as much as a thousand times as high per bacterium than

 

(E) as much as a thousand times higher per bacterium as

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison (as than ?)

★ comp(as than x)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-39 201111wed

The architectural problem of how to enclose and articulate interior space becomes [increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger].

 

(A) increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger

 

(B) ever more critical as the size of the space increases

 

(C) more and more critical as the size of the space will increase

 

(D) one that is increasingly critical as there is an increase in the size of the space

 

(E) more critical with the size of the space getting larger

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy

Grammar (will?)

1

1 gram(副詞説will x)

2 cons(there)

3 red(size/larger)

解答

[A] 3

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E] 3



Gsc4-38 201108sun

Despite its inconveniences and irritations, jury service [can, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform].

 

(A) can, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform

 

(B) can be, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform

 

(C) can be, and often has been, the most rewarding civic duty the average citizens perform

 

(D) may have been, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty the average citizens perform

 

(E) might be, and often has been, the most rewarding civic duty average citizens have performed

 

解法のテクニック

動詞パラレル

★オリジナル意味は?

1 p(不整合)

2 original逸脱

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 2



Gsc4-37 201101sun

[In combination, the trend of demographics and economics indicate] that the regions of the United States will continue to become more disparate in their problems and needs.

 

(A) In combination, the trend of demographics and economics indicate

 

(B) The trend of demographics and economics combined indicates

 

(C) Demographic trends, in combination with economic, indicate

 

(D) Demographic and economic trends, in combination, indicate

 

(E) Demographic trends combine with the economic to indicate

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル

★単複

Ambiguous Modifier

1 s/p

2 p

3 mm(combined)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 3

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc4-36 201028wed

According to the space agency, the proposed transmitter [would not last barely a month if it is] subjected to the intense heat of space.

 

(A) would not last barely a month if it is

 

(B) could not last hardly a month if it is

 

(C) will last no more than hardly a month if it is

 

(D) would not last a month if it will be

 

(E) will not last a month if

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy: 否定

Tense: 仮定法

1 red(not/barely)

2 tense(仮定法)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc4-35 201025sun

Until fairly recently pre-Columbian artifacts were [regarded more often to be objects of archaeological interest than] artistic quality.

 

(A) regarded more often to be objects of archaeological interest than

 

(B) considered more often to be objects of archaeological interest rather than

 

(C) regarded more often as objects of archaeological interest than as objects of

 

(D) considered as being more often objects of archaeological interest than of

 

(E) regarded more often as being objects of archaeological interest instead of

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: regard/ consider

Conciseness: being?

1 dic (regard)

2 being

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 2



Gsc4-34 201021wed

Unlike [most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires] protection from corrosion.

 

(A) most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(B) most suspension bridges, the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge's main cables are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(C) most suspension bridges, the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge has its main cables made of ungalvanized wire, which now require

 

(D) those of most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(E) those of most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now require

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Unlike-> Like

Llike O, S

S, like O, V

singular/ plural: which?

1 unlike

2 s/p

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc4-33 201018sun

Health insurers have begun to demand [that the providers of mental health services be accountable for establishing] that the treatments they administer, under various therapeutic theories, are in fact beneficial.

 

(A) that the providers of mental health services be accountable for establishing

 

(B) accountability from the providers of mental health services to establish

 

(C) that the providers of mental health services have accountability to establish

 

(D) accountability for the providers of mental health services, establishing

 

(E) accountability from those who provide mental health services in order to establish

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: demand that 原形

Conciseness: have +N->V

1 句or節(demand that)

2 cons(have+→〜)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc4-32 201014wed

In 1719 the Meissen manufacturers found a way of combining kaolin, quartz, and feldspar, a kind of potash, to manufacture a hard-paste porcelain [which was comparable to what was being imported by Europeans from the Far East for centuries].

 

(A) which was comparable to what was being imported by Europeans from the Far East for centuries

 

(B) which compared with that which Europeans imported from the Far East for centuries

 

(C) comparable with what Europeans imported from the Far East for centuries

 

(D) comparable to what Europeans had imported for centuries from the Far East

 

(E) that could be compared to what Europeans imported for centuries from the Far East

 

解法のテクニック

Coniseness: which?

Diction: comparable to/ comparable with ?

1 cons

2 dic(comparable to匹敵)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 1



Gsc4-31

The key discovery in the scientific effort to understand fire was made in 1774 when Lavoisier recognized that [the apparent disappearance of matter in flames is an illusion].

 

(A) the apparent disappearance of matter in flames is an illusion

 

(B) the matter that apparently disappears in flames is an illusion

 

(C) the disappearance of matter in flames is apparently an illusion

 

(D) it was an illusion that there is an apparent disappearance of matter in flames

 

(E) it was an illusion that matter apparently disappears in flames

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: apparent apparetly xx

cf seeming xx seemingly

Conciseness

1 dic(apparently x)

2 cons(意味のないit)

3 cl(apparentとは?)

解答

[A]

[B] 13

[C] 13

[D] 2

[E] 12



Gsc4- 30 201007wed

Maesanin, the active ingredient in an herbal tea used by East Africans to ward off cholera, [has an antibacterial action but by a mechanism that is neither understood nor similar to that of] other antibiotics.

 

(A) has an antibacterial action but by a mechanism that is neither understood nor similar to that of

 

(B) has an antibacterial action by a mechanism that is not understood, however, nor similar to

 

(C) has an antibacterial action, but it does so by a mechanism that is neither understood nor similar to that of

 

(D) acts against bacteria by a mechanism that is not understood, however, and is different from

 

(E) acts against bacteria, but it does so by a mechanism that is not understood and is different from that of

 

解法のテクニック

concise : have,do, make +N ????

パラレル

1 cons(have+→V)

2 p(however→A but B)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc4-29 201004sun

Since children who undergo preschool education have [been proven to be less liable] to need remedial programs later, preschool education programs are demonstrably cost effective.

 

(A) been proven to be less liable

 

(B) proved themselves not as liable

 

(C) proved to be less likely

 

(D) proven to be less liable

 

(E) proven themselves not as likely

 

解法のテクニック

Diction

  1. be likely to V
  2. most/less(程度表現) likely
  3. It it likely that

 

xx will likely

xx would most likely

xx be liable to V

cf be liable for

★ likely(liable x)

proved to be

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-28 200930wed

On nearing the Earth, [charged particles coming from the Sun tend to be deflected toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field].

 

(A) charged particles coming from the Sun tend to be deflected toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field

 

(B) charged particles that come from the Sun tend to deflect toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field

 

(C) charged particles tend to be deflected as they come from the Sun toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field

 

(D) the Earth's magnetic field tends to deflect charged particles that come from the Sun toward the North and South poles

 

(E) the Earth's magnetic field tends to deflect toward the North and South Poles charged particles coming from the Sun

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

Trick: byを正当化するには。。。。?!

trick

1 dm(on ing)

2 mm(deflected-come-by=vvm)

3 byの正当化(受動正解例)

 

解答

[A]

[B] 3

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E]1



Gsc4-27 2000927sun

[Prospects for falling interest rates to continue improved last month] when the nation's money supply dropped sharply and a leading bank cut its prime lending rate a full percentage point.

 

(A) Prospects for falling interest rates to continue improved last month

 

(B) Prospects that interest rates will continue to fall improved last month

 

(C) Prospects improved for the continuation of falling interest rates last month

 

(D) Last month prospects improved for interest rates to continue to fall

 

(E) Last month prospects improved that falling interest rates will continue

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity/ Diction: continue

Ambiguous modifier....................とすると?!

1 cl/dic(continue to)

2 mm(長い句)

cf continueのみの例もあり

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]1



Gsc4-26 200920sun

Species of insects or birds that are accidentally introduced into a new country often become pests because [they now lack their predators from their former habitat].

 

(A) they now lack their predators from their former habitat

 

(B) of the predators they now lack from their former habitat

 

(C) of the predators of their former habitat that are now absent

 

(D) the predators they encountered in their former habitat are now absent

 

(E) their predators they encountered in their former habitat are lacking now

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: 句or節

misplaced modifier

conciseness................とすると?!

1 句or節(because of→because)

2 mm

3 cons/cl(不要限定their)

4 dic(be lacking inだとしてもlack)

あり

解答

[A] 2

[B] 12

[C] 1

[D]

[E]34



Gsc4-25 200916wed

During the first half of the nineteenth century, the growth in the commercial production of cotton [led to the plantation system expanding and the system's reliance on slave labor intensifying] .

 

(A) led to the plantation system expanding and the system's reliance on slave labor intensifying

 

(B) had led to the plantation system being expanded and the system's reliance on slave labor becoming more intense

 

(C) led to the plantation system's expansion and the intensification of their reliance on slave labor

 

(D) led to an expansion of the plantation system and an intensification of the system's reliance on slave labor

 

(E) had led to an expansion of the plantation system and had intensified their reliance on slave labor

 

解法のテクニック

Reference: あいまいthey

Clarity, Diction: lead to O/ lead to V/ so, lead to -ing xx/ & lead to 何?

1 lead to何(expansion)

2 ref(あいまいthey)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 12

[D]

[E]2



Gsc4-24 200913sun

[Through waste conversion into salable materials and using energy that would otherwise be wasted], many companies have found that they can reduce costs and pollution simultaneously.

 

(A) Through waste conversion into salable materials and using energy that would otherwise be wasted

 

(B) Through converting wastes into salable materials and the use of otherwise wasted energy

 

(C) By converting wastes into salable materials and using energy that would otherwise be wasted

 

(D) By the converting of wastes into salable materials and waste energy use

 

(E) By waste conversion into salable materials and waste energy use

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:A and B 釣り合ってるのは?

★ p(and前後)cl/dic(by ing)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-23 200909wed

Employers often obtain arrest records of applicants for employment from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's computerized file, but [in that file they mostly] fail to indicate the outcome of cases, and approximately one-fifth are inaccurate.

 

(A) in that file they mostly

 

(B) in that file most

 

(C) most of them in that file

 

(D) most in that file

 

(E) most records in that file

 

解法のテクニック

Reference/ Clarity: あいまいthey

★ ref(あいまいthey)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc4-22 200902wed

If continued population growth [is unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe would] face widespread hunger and famine.

 

(A) is unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe would

 

(B) is not matched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe will

 

(C) will not be matched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe would

 

(D) should be unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe can

 

(E) were to be unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe may

 

解法のテクニック

★仮定法おさらい

仮定法過去

If I were a bird, I would fly to you.

 

仮定法現在(条件文)

50/50 chance

If she comes, I will be happy.

 

仮定法過去完了

If I had been a bird (then),

1)   I would have flwn to you (then).

2) I would fly to you (now).

 

以下、仮定法未来

 If she should cry, I will/ would be sad.

 If the earth were to explode, we would die.

★ tense(仮定法)

cf unmaychedよりnot matchedで正解例

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-21 200830sun

[Founded in 1843, the Economist's weekly magazine circulation has now doubled to about 200,000, twice that of a decade ago].

 

(A) Founded in 1843, the Economist's weekly magazine circulation has now doubled to about 200,000, twice that of a decade ago.

 

(B) The Economist magazine, founded in 1843, now has a weekly circulation twice that of a decade ago, doubled to about 200,000.

 

(C) Founded in 1843, the weekly circulation of the magazine the Economist is now twice what it was a decade ago, doubled to about 200,000.

 

(D) The weekly the Economist, founded in 1843, has a magazine circulation that had doubled to about 200,000, twice a decade ago's.

 

(E) The Economist, a magazine founded in 1843, now has a weekly circulation of about 200,000, twice what it was a decade ago.

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy: twice-double。。。とすると?!

1 dm

2 red(twice/double)

解答

[A] 2

[B] 2

[C] 12

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc4- 30 200826wed

Maesanin, the active ingredient in an herbal tea used by East Africans to ward off cholera, [has an antibacterial action but by a mechanism that is neither understood nor similar to that of] other antibiotics.

 

(A) has an antibacterial action but by a mechanism that is neither understood nor similar to that of

 

(B) has an antibacterial action by a mechanism that is not understood, however, nor similar to

 

(C) has an antibacterial action, but it does so by a mechanism that is neither understood nor similar to that of

 

(D) acts against bacteria by a mechanism that is not understood, however, and is different from

 

(E) acts against bacteria, but it does so by a mechanism that is not understood and is different from that of

 

解法のテクニック

Concise: have/ make/ do + V -> V

Concise:however + and->but。。。。。とすると?!

1 cons(have+→V)

2 p(however→A but B)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc4-29 200823sun

Since children who undergo preschool education have [been proven to be less liable] to need remedial programs later, preschool education programs are demonstrably cost effective.

 

(A) been proven to be less liable

 

(B) proved themselves not as liable

 

(C) proved to be less likely

 

(D) proven to be less liable

 

(E) proven themselves not as likely

 

解法のテクニック

1) be likely to

2) most/least likely

3) it is likely that

 

X

likely (adv)

will likely

would likely

would most likely

(wouldmost)

likelier

 

tend to

apt to

liable to (cf liable for 責任あり ok)。。。。とすると?!

★ likely(liable x)

proved to be

 

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-28 200819sun

On nearing the Earth, [charged particles coming from the Sun tend to be deflected toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field].

 

(A) charged particles coming from the Sun tend to be deflected toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field

 

(B) charged particles that come from the Sun tend to deflect toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field

 

(C) charged particles tend to be deflected as they come from the Sun toward the North and South Poles by the Earth's magnetic field

 

(D) the Earth's magnetic field tends to deflect charged particles that come from the Sun toward the North and South poles

 

(E) the Earth's magnetic field tends to deflect toward the North and South Poles charged particles coming from the Sun

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

Misplaced Modifier

Trick: byを正当化するには。。。。。?!

trick

1 dm(on ing)

2 mm(deflected-come-by=vvm)

3 byの正当化(受動正解例)

解答

[A]

[B] 3

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc4-27 200816sun

[Prospects for falling interest rates to continue improved last month] when the nation's money supply dropped sharply and a leading bank cut its prime lending rate a full percentage point.

 

(A) Prospects for falling interest rates to continue improved last month

 

(B) Prospects that interest rates will continue to fall improved last month

 

(C) Prospects improved for the continuation of falling interest rates last month

 

(D) Last month prospects improved for interest rates to continue to fall

 

(E) Last month prospects improved that falling interest rates will continue

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity & Diction : continueは?

Clarity & Diction : Phrase or Clause......とすると?!

1 cl/dic(continue to)

2 mm(長い句)

cf continueのみの例もあり

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E] 1



Gsc4-26 200809sun

Species of insects or birds that are accidentally introduced into a new country often become pests because [they now lack their predators from their former habitat].

 

(A) they now lack their predators from their former habitat

 

(B) of the predators they now lack from their former habitat

 

(C) of the predators of their former habitat that are now absent

 

(D) the predators they encountered in their former habitat are now absent

 

(E) their predators they encountered in their former habitat are lacking now

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: because of ->because

Misplaced Modifier: their former habitatは何にかかる?

Diction: lack +O (meaning)。。。。とすると?!

1 句or節(because of→because)

2 mm

3 cons/cl(不要限定their)

4 dic(be lacking inだとしてもlack)

解答

[A] 2

[B] 12

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 34



Gsc4-25 200805wed

During the first half of the nineteenth century, the growth in the commercial production of cotton [led to the plantation system expanding and the system's reliance on slave labor intensifying].

 

(A) led to the plantation system expanding and the system's reliance on slave labor intensifying

 

(B) had led to the plantation system being expanded and the system's reliance on slave labor becoming more intense

 

(C) led to the plantation system's expansion and the intensification of their reliance on slave labor

 

(D) led to an expansion of the plantation system and an intensification of the system's reliance on slave labor

 

(E) had led to an expansion of the plantation system and had intensified their reliance on slave labor

 

解法のテクニック

Reference: they?

Diction: lead to N, lead to V, so lead to -ingはx。。。。とすると?!

1 lead to何(expansion)

2 ref(あいまいthey)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 12

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc4-23 200802sun

Employers often obtain arrest records of applicants for employment from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's computerized file, but [in that file they mostly] fail to indicate the outcome of cases, and approximately one-fifth are inaccurate.

 

(A) in that file they mostly

 

(B) in that file most

 

(C) most of them in that file

 

(D) most in that file

 

(E) most records in that file

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: Which is the clearest?.......とすると?!

★ ref(あいまいthey)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-24 200729wed

[Through waste conversion into salable materials and using energy that would otherwise be wasted], many companies have found that they can reduce costs and pollution simultaneously.

 

(A) Through waste conversion into salable materials and using energy that would otherwise be wasted

 

(B) Through converting wastes into salable materials and the use of otherwise wasted energy

 

(C) By converting wastes into salable materials and using energy that would otherwise be wasted

 

(D) By the converting of wastes into salable materials and waste energy use

 

(E) By waste conversion into salable materials and waste energy use

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレリズム:A and B

Diction: By -ing。。。。。とすると?!

★ p(and前後)cl/dic(by ing)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-22 200726sun

If continued population growth [is unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe would] face widespread hunger and famine.

 

(A) is unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe would

 

(B) is not matched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe will

 

(C) will not be matched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe would

 

(D) should be unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe can

 

(E) were to be unmatched by increases in food supply, large parts of the globe may

 

解法のテクニック

仮定法!

仮定法過去

If I were a bird, I would fly to you.

 

仮定法現在(条件文)

50/50 chance

If she comes, I will be happy.

 

仮定法過去完了

If I had been a bird (then),

1)   I would have flwn to you (then).

2) I would fly to you (now).

 

以下、仮定法未来

 If she should cry, I will/ would be sad.

 If the earth were to explode, we would die.

★ tense(仮定法)

cf unmaychedよりnot matchedで正解例

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc4-21 200719sun

[Founded in 1843, the Economist's weekly magazine circulation has now doubled to about 200,000, twice that of a decade ago.]

 

(A) Founded in 1843, the Economist's weekly magazine circulation has now doubled to about 200,000, twice that of a decade ago.

 

(B) The Economist magazine, founded in 1843, now has a weekly circulation twice that of a decade ago, doubled to about 200,000.

 

(C) Founded in 1843, the weekly circulation of the magazine the Economist is now twice what it was a decade ago, doubled to about 200,000.

 

(D) The weekly the Economist, founded in 1843, has a magazine circulation that had doubled to about 200,000, twice a decade ago's.

 

(E) The Economist, a magazine founded in 1843, now has a weekly circulation of about 200,000, twice what it was a decade ago.

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

Redundancy: double/twice。。。。とすると?!

1 dm

2 red(twice/double)

解答

[A] 2

[B] 2

[C] 12

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc4-20 200715wed

The proportion of the work force that is unionized has declined; only one worker in every five now belongs to a union, [rather than one in every four, like in 1955].

 

(A) rather than one in every four, like in 1955

 

(B) instead of one in every four, as in 1955

 

(C) not like it was in 1955, with one in every four

 

(D) unlike 1955, when it was one in every four

 

(E) whereas there was one in every four in 1955

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar: like=前置詞

Conciseness.............とすると?!


1 like vs as(大概as勝ち)

like=prep(like in xx, like 節xx)

2 cons/cl(when-, there△)

one in everyでok例

instead of ing◎、+inとかx

rather than=接続

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E] 2



Gsc4-19 200712sun

Despite the growing concern of government officials that sophisticated United States technology and arms are being shipped illegally to unfriendly nations, the federal agencies [in charge of administering the export control laws remains understaffed, and its enforcement efforts] are sporadic.

 

(A) in charge of administering the export control laws remains understaffed, and its enforcement efforts

 

(B) having charge of the administration of the export control laws remains understaffed, and their enforcement efforts

 

(C) having the charge of administering the export control laws remains understaffed and their enforcing efforts

 

(D) in charge to administer the export control laws remain understaffed, and their efforts at enforcement

 

(E) charged with administering the export control laws remain understaffed, and their enforcement efforts

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: be in charge of

Agreement。。。。とすると?!

1 s/p

2 dic(in charge ofならok)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc4-18 200707wed

Confronted with mounting [drug prices, particularly the synthetic petrochemical derivatives], some Western chemists are turning their attention to herbs used for many centuries in African and Asian medical practice.

 

(A) drug prices, particularly the synthetic petrochemical derivatives

 

(B) drug prices, particularly the synthetic drugs derived from petrochemicals

 

(C) drug prices, in particular the synthetic derivatives from petrochemicals

 

(D) prices for drugs, in particular the synthetics derived of petrochemicals

 

(E) prices for drugs, particularly the synthetic drugs derived from petrochemicals

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: derive

★パラレルトリック:同格は。。。。。?!

trick(同格系)

1 p(同格drug prices)

2 dic(derive from)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc4-17 200705sun

[Although much used in employment interviews as well as in police work, the validity of lie detector tests] is questionable, and research has shown many instances of misclassification by trained interrogators.

 

(A) Although much used in employment interviews as well as in police work, the validity of lie detector tests

 

(B) Although they are much used in both employment interviews and in police work, the validity of lie detector tests

 

(C) Although lie detector tests are much used both in employment interviews and in police work, their validity

 

(D) The validity of lie detector tests, in spite of being much used in both employment interviews and in police work,

 

(E) The validity of lie detector tests, although much used both in employment interviews and police work,

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier

★パラレル:both A and B

Conciseness。。。。とすると?!

1 dm

2 both A and B(A B check

3 in spite of being xx

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C]

[D] 3

[E] 1

 



Gsc4-16 200631wed

The ratio of [salaries of managers to ordinary workers are substantially lower in Japan than the comparable ratio] in the United States.

 

(A) salaries of managers to ordinary workers are substantially lower in Japan than the comparable ratio

 

(B) salaries of managers to ordinary workers is substantially lower in Japan than is the comparable ratio

 

(C) managers' to ordinary workers' salaries are substantially lower in Japan than

 

(D) managers' salaries to those of ordinary workers is substantially lower in Japan than

 

(E) managers' salaries to those of ordinary workers are substantially lower in Japan than is the comparable ratio

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar: s/p

Redundancy-Comparison。。。。とすると?!

1 s/p

2 comp(comparable→比較)

 

解答

[A] 12

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 2

 



Gsc4-15 200628sun

[If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would generate not a blast, shock, nor heat, but] an intense electromagnetic pulse disrupting, like a lightning bolt, all unshielded electric lines and electronic equipment.

 

(A) If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would generate not a blast, shock, nor heat, but

 

(B) If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would not generate a blast, shock, or heat, but rather

 

(C) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would generate no blast, shock, or heat, but rather

 

(D) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would not generate a blast, shock, or heat, but rather

 

(E) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would not generate a blast, shock, nor heat, but

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness: If-it->SV

Conciseness: 否定not ano。。。。とすると?!

1 cons(if-it→S would)

2 cons(否定not a→no)

3 nor xx

解答

[A] 12

[B]12

[C]

[D] 2

[E] 23

 

 



Gsc4-14 200624wed

The United States and Canada have agreed to joint action on acid rain, an environmental pollutant [that each exports to the other].

 

(A) that each exports to the other

 

(B) each is exporting to the other one

 

(C) that one exports to the next

 

(D) they are exporting to one another

 

(E) that they both export to each other

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: [each=A B]/ [the other=B A]

★ p/cl(様式美A/BがB/Aに)

多:多/単:単 系

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc4-13 200621sun

[International loans that are extensive and in some cases exceeding the total equity of the lending bank have exposed them] to insolvency, since borrowers, hard-pressed by changes in interest rates and oil prices, have found repayment impossible.

 

(A) International loans that are extensive and in some cases exceeding the total equity of the lending bank have exposed them

 

(B) International loans that are extensive in size and exceeding in some cases the total equity of the lending banks expose the lenders

 

(C) International loans, extensive in size and in some cases exceeding the total equity of the lending bank, expose them

 

(D) Extensive international loans, exceeding in some cases the total equity of the lending banks, have exposed the lenders

 

(E) Extensive international loans, in some cases exceeding the total equity of the lending bank, have exposed them

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: who's "them?"

Conciseness。。。。。。とすると?!

1 ref(あいまいthey)

2 cons(that are)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 1

 



Gsc4-12 200617wed

Margot Peters' recent study examines the actresses [with whom, as] a dramatic critic and struggling playwright, Shaw found himself writing for, competing with, courting for their influence, and often simply courting.

 

(A) with whom, as

 

(B) with whom, when he was

 

(C) with whom, being

 

(D) whom, being

 

(E) whom, as

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar(with whom?):パラレルを観察

Concise、、、、、とすると?!

1 gram(with whom?)

2 being

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]

 



Gsc4-11 200614sun

When there is disagreement in a criminal case?that is, when reasonable doubt becomes an element in the verdict?a jury is six times [more likely to acquit as to convict a defendant].

 

(A) more likely to acquit as to convict a defendant

 

(B) more likely to acquit than to convict a defendant

 

(C) more likely about acquitting a defendant rather than convicting

 

(D) likelier to acquit a defendant rather than convict

 

(E) likelier that a defendant will be acquitted rather than convicted

 

解法のテクニック

Comparison: more A than B

Good!

1) be likely to

2) most/least likely

3) it is likely that

 

X

likely (adv)

will likely

would likely

would most likely

(wouldmost)

likelier

 

tend to

apt to

liable to (cf liable for 責任あり ok)

1 comp(more as x)

2 comp(liklier x)

3 be likely to

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 3

[D] 2

[E] 3

 



Gsc4-10 200610wed

[It is known that consuming too much sodium makes a contribution to hypertension], which is a factor in half the deaths in the United States each year.

 

(A) It is known that consuming too much sodium makes a contribution to hypertension

 

(B) The consumption of too much sodium is known to have made a contribution to hypertension

 

(C) Consuming too much sodium is known to contribute to hypertension

 

(D) Contributing to hypertension is the consuming of too much sodium

 

(E) Known to contribute to hypertension is the consumption of too much sodium

 

解法のテクニック

Concise/ Diction: be known to V

Concise: make a contribution<contribute

1 mm(,which)

2 dic(be known to)

 

解答

[A] 2

[B] 2

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 1

 



Gsc4-9 200607sun

Income tax indexing is intended to eliminate the [constant tax increase that results as inflation pushes individuals] into higher tax brackets.

 

(A) constant tax increase that results as inflation pushes individuals

 

(B) constant tax increase as a result of individuals being pushed by inflation

 

(C) constant tax increase because inflation pushes individuals

 

(D) constantly increasing taxes that result because of inflation pushing individuals

 

(E) constantly increasing taxes because individuals are pushed by inflation

 

解法のテクニック

Clarity: ing→節

(as a result of ing, because of -ng)

Modifier: resultがかかるのは?

1 句ing→節

(as a result of ing, because of -ng)

2 am/mm(because節はv=resultにかかる)

 

cf as正解例

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 2

 



Gsc4-8 200603wed

 [It is possible that future spacecraft will be slowly propelled] through almost empty space within the solar system, not by jets of gas, but by the force of photons of sunlight pushing on thin plastic sails.

 

(A) It is possible that future spacecraft will be slowly propelled

 

(B) It is possible for future spacecraft to be propelled slowly

 

(C) Future spacecraft could be propelled slowly possibly

 

(D) Future spacecraft could possibly slowly be propelled

 

(E) It could be possible that future spacecraft be propelled slowly

 

解法のテクニック

Redundancy: possible-could?

Modifier: 何がpossible?

Style: 意味上の主語まで動員して句にする必要あり?

1 mm(slowly possibly)

2 red(could possible)

3 dic/cl( 句or節(it-for-to→that節=

1)意味上の主語が必要なit-to構文は、that節で

2)受動to xx

3)dic度(cf 10)

 

解答

[A]

[B] 3

[C] 12

[D] 1

[E] 2

 



Gsc4-7 200531sun

Government agencies have agreed to authorize insurance payments for the use of CAT scanners, recognizing that these machines [are able to make hospital stays shorter and to reduce] the frequency of exploratory surgery.

 

(A) are able to make hospital stays shorter and to reduce

(B) may make hospital stays shorter and make a reduction in

(C) should shorten hospital stays and also make a reduction in

(D) can shorten hospital stays and reduce

(E) will shorten hospital stays, reducing

 

解法のテクニック

Concise:

be able to vs can

make O short vs shorten

make a reduction vs reduce

1 cons(able)

2 cons(make+→V)

3 original(can/should)

4 mm(, -ing)

 

解答

[A]1

[B] 2

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 3

 



Gsc4-6 200527wed

Few baskets made by Southern California Indians would have survived to the present [had it not been for] enthusiastic collectors at the turn of the century.

 

(A) had it not been for

 

(B) unless there had been

 

(C) without the fact that there were

 

(D) were it not due to

 

(E) except that there were

 

解法のテクニック

If構文:仮定法過去完了If it had not been for= Had it not been for

 

仮定法過去

If I were a bird, I would fly to you.

 

仮定法現在(条件文)

50/50 chance

If she comes, I will be happy.

 

仮定法過去完了

If I had been a bird (then),

1)   I would have flwn to you (then).

2) I would fly to you (now).

 

以下、仮定法未来

 If she should cry, I will/ would be sad.

 If the earth were to explode, we would die.

★ dic(仮定法had it not)

解答

[A] 

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc4-5 200524sun

Minimum wage legislation has been controversial since its inception: its proponents argue that [the people who are most economically vulnerable are safeguarded from being exploited, while other critics argue it leads to people being unemployed].

 

(A) the people who are most economically vulnerable are safeguarded from being exploited, while other critics argue it leads to people being unemployed

 

(B) the people safeguarded from being exploited are the most economically vulnerable, whereas the critics argue it leads to people being unemployed

 

(C) it is a safeguard so that the most economically vulnerable are not exploited, whereas the critics contend that it is a cause of unemployment

 

(D) it safeguards the most economically vulnerable from exploitation, while its critics contend that it is a cause of unemployment

 

(E) it has safeguarded the people who are most economically vulnerable from being exploited, while its critics contend that it leads to people being unemployed

 

解法のテクニック

Concise/Diction:

lead to N

lead to V

lead to (意味上の主語)~ing    xxxx

Concise: who are?

Concise: is a safegard v safegards....とすると?!

1 lead to何+cons(being)

2 cons(sv it safeguards)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 1

 



Gsc4-4  200520wed

[Unlike] neighboring Pompeii, the inhabitants of Herculaneum had time to flee before their city was buried under volcanic mud when Vesuvius erupted on August 24 in A.D. 79.

 

(A) Unlike

 

(B) Unlike those of

 

(C) Different from those of

 

(D) Different than those in

 

(E) Dissimilar to

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Unlike O, S V

★ unlike

cf different, dissimilar

those

解答

[A]

[B] 

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc4-3 200517sun

[Since Ruth Benedict was an early and outspoken opponent of racial prejudice, and she] argued prophetically that the greatest weapon the country possessed to combat racism was the legal authority of the federal government.

 

(A) Since Ruth Benedict was an early and outspoken opponent of racial prejudice, and she

 

(B) An early and outspoken opponent of racial prejudice, Ruth Benedict

 

(C) Ruth Benedict, who was early in her outspoken opposition against racial prejudice

 

(D) Ruth Benedict's early and outspoken opposition to racial prejudice

 

(E) The outspoken Ruth Benedict, early opposed to racial prejudice,

 

解法のテクニック

Grammar: 接続詞の重複には気を付けよう。

SV: argueした主体は?

Conciseに表現すると。。。?!

1 gram(接続詞重複since/and)

2 cl(「ずばり」系 s-v不整合=argueしたのは?)

3 cons(who was)

4 cons/mm(分離outspoken, oppose)

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 3

[D] 2

[E] 4

 



Gsc4-2 200513wed

Because Congress acted to adjust food stamp benefits [only once a year for inflation, not two times, there was a benefit reduction of] $600 million annually.

 

(A) only once a year for inflation, not two times, there was a benefit reduction of

 

(B) only once annually for inflation, not two times, the amount paid in benefits were reduced by

 

(C) only once a year for inflation, not two times, the reduction of the amount paid in benefits was

 

(D) for inflation only once a year, rather than twice, the amount paid in benefits was reduced by

 

(E) for inflation only one time a year, not twice, there was a reduction of the amount paid in benefits of

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness:

one time→once,

two timestwice

★ cons(one time→once, two times→twice)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc4-1 200510sun

Puritan tracts were concerned with hell and damnation, and fiction was considered [as of harm to] the reader's moral fiber.

 

(A) as of harm to

 

(B) to be a harm to

 

(C) harmful to

 

(D) as harming

 

(E) to be harming to

 

解法のテクニック

concise/ diction: consider OC

★ consider

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc3-40 200506wed

A new method of deriving the vaccine for hoof-and-mouth disease from E. coli bacteria allows for levels of serum production [that are more than a thousand times as high per bacterium than] was previously possible.

 

(A) that are more than a thousand times as high per bacterium than

 

(B) that are more than a thousand times higher per bacterium as

 

(C) that are more than a thousand times higher per bacterium than

 

(D) as much as a thousand times as high per bacterium than

 

(E) as much as a thousand times higher per bacterium as

 

解法のテクニック

more->than/ as->as

★ comp(as than x)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc3-39 200503sun

The architectural problem of how to enclose and articulate interior space becomes [increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger].

 

(A) increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger

 

(B) ever more critical as the size of the space increases

 

(C) more and more critical as the size of the space will increase

 

(D) one that is increasingly critical as there is an increase in the size of the space

 

(E) more critical with the size of the space getting larger

 

解法のテクニック

★基本:Conciseness

★基本:Grammar: 副詞節の規則は?

応用:Redundancyを探す。

1 s/p

2 p

3 mm(combined)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 3

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc3-38 200429wed

Despite its inconveniences and irritations, jury service [can, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform].

 

(A) can, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform

 

(B) can be, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty that average citizens perform

 

(C) can be, and often has been, the most rewarding civic duty the average citizens perform

 

(D) may have been, and often is, the most rewarding civic duty the average citizens perform

 

(E) might be, and often has been, the most rewarding civic duty average citizens have performed

 

解法のテクニック

動詞の並列は、そのすべてが目的格にちゃんと接合するように!

★動詞は形を変えると、当然意味も変わる。。。。。とすると?!

1 p(不整合)

2 original逸脱

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 2

[E] 2



Gsc3-37 200426sun

[In combination, the trend of demographics and economics indicate] that the regions of the United States will continue to become more disparate in their problems and needs.

 

(A) In combination, the trend of demographics and economics indicate

 

(B) The trend of demographics and economics combined indicates

 

(C) Demographic trends, in combination with economic, indicate

 

(D) Demographic and economic trends, in combination, indicate

 

(E) Demographic trends combine with the economic to indicate

 

解法のテクニック

SVの組み合わせが明快なのは。。。。?!

1 s/p

2 p

3 mm(combined)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 3

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc3-36 200422wed

According to the space agency, the proposed transmitter [would not last barely a month if it is] subjected to the intense heat of space.

 

(A) would not last barely a month if it is

 

(B) could not last hardly a month if it is

 

(C) will last no more than hardly a month if it is

 

(D) would not last a month if it will be

 

(E) will not last a month if

 

解法のテクニック

語法:二重否定禁止。

★時制は。。。。。?!

1 red(not/barely)

2 tense(仮定法)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E]



Gsc3-35 200419sun

Until fairly recently pre-Columbian artifacts were [regarded more often to be objects of archaeological interest than] artistic quality.

 

(A) regarded more often to be objects of archaeological interest than

 

(B) considered more often to be objects of archaeological interest rather than

 

(C) regarded more often as objects of archaeological interest than as objects of

 

(D) considered as being more often objects of archaeological interest than of

 

(E) regarded more often as being objects of archaeological interest instead of

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: regard A as B

Concise: being?............とすると?!

1 dic (regard)

2 being

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 2v



Gsc2-34 200415wed

Unlike [most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires] protection from corrosion.

 

(A) most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(B) most suspension bridges, the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge's main cables are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(C) most suspension bridges, the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge has its main cables made of ungalvanized wire, which now require

 

(D) those of most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now requires

 

(E) those of most suspension bridges, the main cables of the eighty-year-old Williamsburg Bridge are made of ungalvanized wire, which now require

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:Unlike O, S VOSはパラレル)

whichが指すのは。。。。。。?!

1 unlike

2 s/p

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 2



Gsc3-33 200412sun

Health insurers have begun to demand [that the providers of mental health services be accountable for establishing] that the treatments they administer, under various therapeutic theories, are in fact beneficial.

 

(A) that the providers of mental health services be accountable for establishing

 

(B) accountability from the providers of mental health services to establish

 

(C) that the providers of mental health services have accountability to establish

 

(D) accountability for the providers of mental health services, establishing

 

(E) accountability from those who provide mental health services in order to establish

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: demand that--動詞原形--

Conciseness/Elegance: have, make, do+ N---??とすると?!

1 句or節(demand that)

2 cons(have+→〜)

解答

[A]

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc3-32 200408wed

In 1719 the Meissen manufacturers found a way of combining kaolin, quartz, and feldspar, a kind of potash, to manufacture a hard-paste porcelain [which was comparable to what was being imported by Europeans from the Far East for centuries].

 

(A) which was comparable to what was being imported by Europeans from the Far East for centuries

 

(B) which compared with that which Europeans imported from the Far East for centuries

 

(C) comparable with what Europeans imported from the Far East for centuries

 

(D) comparable to what Europeans had imported for centuries from the Far East

 

(E) that could be compared to what Europeans imported for centuries from the Far East

 

解法のテクニック

Conciseness: which/that必要?

Disction: comparable to=匹敵....とすると?!

1 cons

2 dic(comparable to匹敵)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 1



Gsc3-31 200405sun

The key discovery in the scientific effort to understand fire was made in 1774 when Lavoisier recognized that [the apparent disappearance of matter in flames is an illusion].

 

(A) the apparent disappearance of matter in flames is an illusion

 

(B) the matter that apparently disappears in flames is an illusion

 

(C) the disappearance of matter in flames is apparently an illusion

 

(D) it was an illusion that there is an apparent disappearance of matter in flames

 

(E) it was an illusion that matter apparently disappears in flames

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: apparently x/ seeming x

Conciseなのは。。。。?!

1 dic(apparently x)

2 cons(意味のないit)

3 cl(apparentとは?)

解答

[A]

[B] 13

[C] 13

[D] 2

[E] 12



Gsc3- 30 200401wed

 City planners in Detroit hope that the renewal project extending along the eastern riverfront will establish a population [that lives and works downtown and also provides] the office space needed to attract new businesses.

 

(A) that lives and works downtown and also provides

 

(B) to live and work downtown and also provide

 

(C) that lives as well as works downtown and also provide

 

(D) which lives as well as works downtown and also provides

 

(E) who live as well as work downtown and also provides

 

解法のテクニック

whoは人のみ

whichは非制限用法

andの後ろは何にかかる?

trick

1 ref(who=x population)

2 ref(限定which△)

3 am,p(and同表現異場面live/workとprovide分けられない)

4 s/p,p(will establishとのp)

解答

[A] 34

[B] 3

[C]

[D] 234

[E] 14



Gsc3-29 200329sun

[ A publication may be sued for libel in any state where it regularly circulates under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court.]

 

(A) A publication may be sued for libel in any state where it regularly circulates under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court.

 

(B) A publication may be sued for libel in any state where it has regular circulation under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court.

 

(C) Under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court, a publication may be sued for libel in any state in which it regularly circulates.

 

(D) Under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court, a publication may be sued for libel in any state in which there is regular circulation.

 

(E) Under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court, there may be a suit for libel in any state in which a publication regularly circulates.

 

解法のテクニック

Misplaced Modifier: under a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Courtがかかるのは、suedの文circulatesの文

1 mm(circulate under?!)

2 cons(there)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 2

[E] 2



Gsc3-28 200325wed

 After three months of investigation, it became apparent that both local and state taxes have not [and probably will not be paid] by the insolvent corporation .

 

(A) and probably will not be paid

 

(B) been and probably will not be paid

 

(C) been paid and probably will not be

 

(D) been paid nor probably will be

 

(E) and will not be paid, probably,

 

解法のテクニック

V and V -> 後ろの接続を見る

★ p/gram(V and V 後ろの接続を見る)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc3-27 200322sun

 Alcohol is the only drug that is soluble in both fat and [water; as such it can enter all parts of the human body, affecting] virtually every cell and biological pathway.

 

(A) water; as such it can enter all parts of the human body, affecting

 

(B) water; as such entering all parts of the human body, and affecting

 

(C) water, as such entering all parts of the human body, which affects

 

(D) water, and as such entering all parts of the human body to affect

 

(E) water, which can enter all parts of the human body to affect

 

解法のテクニック

whichは先行詞との整合性を見る

andはパラレルを確認する( A and B  Bは釣り合ってるか)

★セミコロン(;)は接続詞の役割を持つ。。。とすると?!

trick

1 mm(,which)

2 gram(and-ing)

3 gram/red(;+ing分詞なら、そのまま文に接続できる)

cf ,ing正解例

解答

[A]

[B] 3

[C] 1

[D] 2

[E] 1



Gsc3-26 200318wed

The writer Alice Walker [regards Stevie Wonder to be a spiritual singer rather than] a pop singer, and so she opened The Color Purple with a quotation from his song “Do Like You."

 

(A) regards Stevie Wonder to be a spiritual singer rather than

 

(B) regards Stevie Wonder as being a spiritual singer instead of

 

(C) considers Stevie Wonder a spiritual singer rather than

 

(D) considers Stevie Wonder to bc a spiritual singer instead of

 

(E) considers Stevie Wonder as being a spiritual singer rather than

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: reagard/ considerの用法は?

1 dic(regard系)

2 cons/cl(being)

cf regard as ingは正解例あり

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C]

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc3-25 200321sun

 Searching for tangible evidence of the Roman past in ancient Jerusalem, [Israeli archaeologists have excavated the main Roman entryway into the Old City and succeeded in unearthing a guard tower], the tallest preserved Roman structure in the country.

 

(A) Israeli archaeologists have excavated the main Roman entryway into the Old City and succeeded in unearthing a guard tower,

 

(B) the main Roman entryway into the Old City was excavated by Israeli archaeologists, who succeeded in unearthing a guard tower,

 

(C) the guard tower successfully unearthed by Israeli archaeologists excavating the main Roman entryway into the Old City is

 

(D) the Israeli archaeologists' excavation of the main Roman entryway into the Old City has succeeded in unearthing a guard tower that is

 

(E) success was achieved by Israeli archaeologists h unearthing a guard tower as they were excavating the main Roman entryway to the Old City,

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modifier一発!

★ dm

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc2-24 200311wed

 A growing number of the decisions made at federal, state, and local levels [ involves technical judgments that much of the elecorate is unable knowledgeably to challenge].

 

(A) involves technical judgments that much of the electorate is unable knowledgeably to challenge

 

(B) involves technical judgments unable to be challenged knowledgeably by much of the electorate

 

(C) involves technical judgments that cannot be challenged knowledgeably by much of the electorate

 

(D) involve technical judgments that much of the electorate cannot knowledgeably challenge

 

(E) involve technical judgments incapable of being knowledgeably challenged by much of the electorate

 

解法のテクニック

s/p(a number of)

受動<能動。。。。。とすると?!

1 s/p(a number of)

2 cons(受動)

3 cons(capableは弱い)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 1

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 23



Gsc3-23 200308sun

 Black pepper is the dried fruit of the Piper nigrum, a woody vine that grows only in tropical regions [with about one hundred inches of rainfall a year, on the average, alternating with[ long periods of dry heat.

 

(A) with about one hundred inches of rainfall a year, on the average, alternating with

 

(B) where rainfall, averaging about one hundred inches a year, alternates with

 

(C) with, alternately, about one hundred inches of average annual rainfall and

 

(D) averaging about one hundred inches of rainfall annually, alternating between

 

(E) averaging annually about one hundred inches of rainfall alternately with

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: A alternates with B

同一表現異場面使用の禁止。。。とすると?!

1 dic(A alternates with B)

2 mm(on the average)

3 p/cl(with同表

解答

[A] 23

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 1



Gsc3-22 200301sun

Tecumseh urged [all Native American tribes, even former enemies, to resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it there will be] common ownership of all tribal lands.

 

(A) all Native American tribes, even former enemies, to resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it there will be

 

(B) that all Native American tribes, and even former enemies, resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it there would be

 

(c) that all Native American tribes, even former enemies, should be resistant to the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy and under it they would have

 

(D) all Native American tribes, even former enemies, to resist the cession of individual parcels of land by forming an intertribal confederacy under which there would be

 

(E) all Native American tribes, and even former enemies, that they were to resist the cession of individual parcels of land, form an intertribal confederacy, and under it they would have

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: urge one to V

Concise: and under it < under which  とすると。。。?!

1 dic(urge one to/that原)

2 cons

解答

[A] 2

[B] 2

[C] 1

[D]

[E] 1



Gsc3-21 200226wed

Unlike earlier satellites that last a year or two before failing, [the life span of the new orbiting observatories is expected] to be ten to twenty years.

 

(A) the life span of the new orbiting observatories is expected to be

 

(B) the life span of the new orbiting observatories, it is expected, will be

 

(c) it is expected that the life span of the new orbiting observatories would be

 

(I)) the expectation is for the new orbiting observatories to have a life span of

 

(E) the new orbiting observatories are expected to have a life span of

 

解法のテクニック

★パラレル:Unlike O, S Vは、OSがパラレル、とすると。。。?!

★ p(unlike)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]



Gsc3-20 200223sun

When rates were raised in 1985, postal service officials predicted [they would make further rate increases unnecessary] for at least three years.

 

(A) they would make further rate increases unnecessary

 

(B) they would mean that further rate increases would not be needed

 

(C) that it would not be necessary for further rate increases

 

(D) that the increase would make further rate increases unnecessary

 

(E) further rate increases will not be needed

 

解法のテクニック

that節にはthatを!

Reference: they/itとは.......!

1 ref(あいまいthey)

2 ref(不明it)

3 cons(thatなしx)

4 tense(willは時制不一致)

cf 現在形は一般論用に時制不一致あり

解答

[A] 13

[B] 13

[C] 2

[D]
[E] 34



Gsc3-19 200219wed

To help preserve ancient Egyptian monuments threatened by high water tables, a Swedish engineering firm has proposed installing pumps, perhaps solar powered, [to lower the underground water level and dig trenches] around the bases of the stone walls.

 

(A) to lower the underground water level and dig trenches

 

(B) to lower the underground water level and to dig trenches

 

(C) to lower the underground water level and digging trenches

 

(D) that lower the underground water level and that trenches be dug

 

(E) that lower the underground water level and trench digging

 

解法のテクニック

何がパラレルか?to---or,,,,,,,?!

p(同格はつお〜い!)

cf Gs-6

1 likely

2 liable

3 cl/ref(順/ref先行はわかりにくい)

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc3-18 200216sun

 [Under Napoleon the French were not able to organize an adequate supply system, and it] was a major cause of the failure of their invasion of Russia.

 

(A) Under Napoleon the French were not able to organize an adequate supply system, and it

 

(B) The French being unable to organize an adequate supply system under Napoleon

 

(C) For the French under Napoleon, to be unable to organize an adequate supply system

 

(D) The inability of the French under Napoleon to organize an adequate supply system

 

(E) The French inability under Napoleon of organizing an adequate supply system

 

解法のテクニック

Diction: ability (of one) to Vと考えると。。。?!

 

 

Reference: it(指示語)の対象は名詞のみ。

Conciseness: being unable to->inability

1 ref(it:文内容させない)

2 cons(able/being)cl(否定は前に)

3 dic(ability of one to)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 2

[C] 2

[D]

[E] 3

 




Gsc3-17 200212wed

 [Although just inside the orbit of] Jupiter, amateur astronomers with good telescopes should be able to see the comet within the next few weeks.

 

(A) Although just inside the orbit of

 

(B) Although it is just inside the orbit of

 

(C) Just inside the orbit of

 

(D) Orbiting just inside

 

(E) Having orbited just inside

 

解法のテクニック

Dangling Modiier: inside the oribitにいるのは。。。?!

dm

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

 



Gsc3-16 200209sun

 One of Ronald Reagan's first acts as President was to rescind President Carter's directive [that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries].

 

(A) that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries

 

(B) that any chemical be prohibited from sale to other countries that was banned on medical grounds in the United States

 

(C) prohibiting the sale to other countries of any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States

 

(D) prohibiting that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States is sold to other countries

 

(E) that any chemical banned in the United States on medical grounds is prohibited from being sold to other countries

 

解法のテクニック

directive->要求+that+原形

Diction: prohibit O/ prohibit one from -ing

とすると。。。?!

hard

1 cons/mm(あいまいthat was-sale?chemical?)

2 dic(require系that-原)

3 dic(prohibit that x)

trick 4 cl/cons(svsv後ろにスポット→簡単なsv転化) dicが前提(sale of/on-grounds)

解答

[A] 4

[B] 1

[C]

[D] 23

[E] 2

 



Gsc3-15 200205wed

According to his own account, Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, the sculptor of the Statue of Liberty, [modeled the face of the statue like his mother's and the body like his wife's].

 

(A) modeled the face of the statue like his mother's and the body like his wife's

 

(B) modeled the face of the statue after that of his mother and the body after that of his wife

 

(C) modeled the face of the statue like his mother and the body like his wife

 

(D) made the face of the statue after his mother and the body after his wife

 

(E) made the face of the statue look like his mother and the body look like his wife

 

解法のテクニック

パラレル:A-a, B-b

Diction: 「ちなんで」はどう言う?

trick

1 p/cl(内容パラレルface=xmother/ that of)

2 cl/dic(lちなんで=after>like)

解答

[A] 2

[B]

[C] 12

[D] 1

[E] 12